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Abomasum - Anatomy & Physiology
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The abomasum is the fourth chamber in the ruminant. It functions similarly to the carnivore stomach as it is glandular and digests food chemically, rather than mechanically or by fermentation like the other 3 chambers of the ruminant stomach.

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Active Transport - Physiology
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Active transport is reliant on carrier proteins and thus follows the same rules as facilitated diffusion in that they are specific have a maximum rate and are subject to competition. Crucially they transport substances against their concentration gradient and so require energy to work.

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Aldosterone
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Aldosterone is a steroid hormone which is secreted from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. It has a mineralocorticoid activity and is the most important regulator of plasma potassium. When plasma potassium increases, increased stimulation of aldosterone occurs directly and also as a result of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS). Aldosterone is also the most important regulator of sodium excretion.

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Alimentary System - Horse Anatomy
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The horse is a monogastric hindgut fermenter. The horse evolved for grazing and it does so for up to 17 hours a day. A high proportion of the horse's dietary carbohydrate is in the form of starch. A mature horse eats 2-2.5% of it's body weight in dry matter every day, 1.5-1.75% of this should be fibre (hay/haylage). This is to prevent a rapid drop in pH in the large intestine and also to stimulate peristalsis in the gut and prevent build up of gas.

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Anus - Anatomy & Physiology
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The anus is the terminal portion of the alimentary tract which communicates with the external environment. Two sphincters control it's aperture. It allows faeces and gas to leave the body. Defeacation is the process where faeces are expelled from the rectum through the anus.

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Aortic Arches - Anatomy & Physiology
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After emerging from the heart, the aortic artery divides into the right and left dorsal branches. Each branch feeds into a set of arches which are unique to the embryo. Most higher vertebrates have have 6 pairs of aortic arches. In the mammal the 5th pair do not form. These arches evolve to form some of the structures of the mammalian circulation. The fate of each arch varies.

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Arteries of the Hindlimb - Anatomy & Physiology
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Although the information on this page is based around the anatomy of the canine hindlimb, it is essentially the anatomy of the arteries in domestic species. Any major differences will be discussed on their respective pages

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Autonomic Nervous System - Anatomy & Physiology
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The peripheral nervous system found in most domestic species can be segregated into three sub-systems; the sensory system, the somatic motor system and the autonomic system. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the internal environment of the body including factors such as body temperature, blood pressure and concentrations of many substances. The ANS is also responsible for mobilising the body's resources during stressful situations. The ANS controls gland cells, cardiac muscle cells and smooth muscle cells. Control of this nervous system is involuntary and regulation is via autonomic reflexes. The autonomic reflex arc system is very similar to that of the somatic motor system, i.e. there are sensory (afferent) nerve fibres, an information integration centre, motor (efferent) fibres and effector cells. Any levels of increased activity within the autonomic nervous system can result in both stimulation or inhibition of effector cells, although it is only the efferent part of the reflex arc that is actually considered autonomic.

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Avian Intestines - Anatomy & Physiology
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The intestines occupy the caudal part of the body. They contact the reproductive organs and the gizzard. The small intestine is long and relatively uniform in shape and size. There is no demarcation between the jejunum and the ileum.

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Bile Formation
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Bile formation is an osmotic secretory process that is driven by the active concentration of bile salts in the bile canaliculi. Bile acids are produced from cholesterol and prior to being excreted from hepatocytes are bound to specific amino acids allowing them to exist as bile salts. One side of the bile salt molecule is negatively charged (hydrophilic) whilst the other is hydrophobic allowing bile salts to form micelles once a certain bile salt concentration has been reached.

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Blastocyst Embryonic Development - Anatomy & Physiology
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Once sperm has entered the the oocyte, an ootid is formed. During early stages the ootid will contain male and female pronuclei along with the first and second polar bodies. Fusion of the male and female pronuclei will result in a single diploid nucleus or syngamy. Once syngamy has occurred, the zona pellucida then develops into an imprenetrable layer that prevents polyspermy and so polyploidy. Once the zona pellucida has developed, the ootid is now referred to as a zygote (diploid) and will begin undergoing mitotic divisions via a cleavage process that will begin to give rise to daughter cells called blastomeres. These cleavage divisions will begin to produce a 4-celled embryo and then an 8-celled embryo.

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Blood Pressure
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This page has links to many topics centered around blood pressure: blood pressure measurement, physiology, kidney control of blood pressure, renal blood pressure, and the renin angiotensin aldosterine system

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Bone & Cartilage Development - Anatomy & Physiology
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Osteogenesis is the formation of bone. Bone forms from one of three lineages; the skull forms from the neural crest; the limb skeleton forms from the lateral plate mesoderm; and the axial skeleton forms from the paraxial mesoderm (sclerotome).

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Bronchi and Bronchioles - Anatomy & Physiology
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The trachea bifurcates at the levels of the 4th-6th intercostal space, approximately halfway between the thoracic inlet and the diaphragm. It divides into two principle bronchi, tubes which conduct air into the lungs, and they divide into two lobar bronchi for the left lung, and into four lobar bronchi for the right lung. These further divide into smaller bronchi and bronchioles within the lung tissue.

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CNS Development - Anatomy & Physiology
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Development of the Central Nervous System (CNS) includes development of the brain, spinal cord, optic and auditory systems, as well as surrounding supporting cells including ependymal cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Information within this page will exclude development of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) which includes nerve and ganglia formation.

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Camelid Stomach - Anatomy & Physiology
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Camelids have a similar digestive structure to other ruminants, although camelids only have three separate stomach compartments compared to the four found in domestic species. The first element of the camelid GI tract, known as C1, can be compared to the rumen whilst the second, known as C2 can be compared to the reticulum. The final element of the tract, C3 can be compared to the abomasum. Therefore camelids do not have a structure comparable to an omasum.

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Cardiorespiratory System Overview - Anatomy & Physiology
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The mammalian cardiovascular and respiratory systems have evolved primarily to provide the tissues of the body with oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide. The cardiorespiratory system also has metabolic and heat exchange roles.

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Category:Musculoskeletal System - Anatomy & Physiology
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The musculoskeletal system includes bones, joints, cartilage, muscles, ligaments and tendons. In order to describe anatomical landmarks for example for the purposes of surgery and to be able to describe different directional information, for example when recording the view of a recently taken x-ray, it is necessary to have a way of describing the planes and axes that can be applied to the musculoskeletal system to pinpoint a specific anatomical area.

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Category:Pregnancy and Parturition
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This page has links to information about pregnancy and parturation; including sperm in the female tract, fertilisation, sexual differentiation, genital development, gestation lengths in different species, maternal recognition of pregnancy, litter sizes, placenta and its endocrine function, fetal circulation, puerperium, and reproductive disorders.

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Central Nervous System - Histology
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The Central Nervous System (CNS) is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. This page is specifically focussed on the histologic appearance, for anatomy see Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain, Cranial Nerves, Spinal Cord and CNS Development.

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Cerebral Spinal Fluid - Anatomy & Physiology
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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounds the brain as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. It helps cushion the central nervous system (CNS), acting in a similar manner to a shock absorber. It also acts as a chemical buffer providing immunological protection and a transport system for waste products and nutrients. The CSF also provides buoyancy to the soft neural tissues which effectively allows the neural tissue to "float" in the CSF. This prevents the brain tissue from becoming deformed under its own weight. It acts as a diffusion medium for the transport of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine substances.

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Cervix - Anatomy & Physiology
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The cervix can be palpated transrectally and forms a sphincter controlling access to the uterus.The anatomy of the cervical canal is adapted to suit a particular pattern of reproduction and its composition will alter under the influence of reproductive hormones. Not only does it respond to the fluctuation in oestrodiol during the oestrous cycle, but is responsive to prostaglandins and oxytocin in order to 'soften' for parturition.

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Colon - Anatomy & Physiology
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The colon is a site of microbial fermentation, the relative importance of this is species dependent. The colon can be divided into the following portions; Ascending, transverse and descending.

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Control of Feeding - Anatomy & Physiology
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Different hormones, neurotransmitters and reflexes are involved in the complicated process of feeding in animals. Secretions and motility of the gastrointestinal tract are stimulated and carefully regulated by numerous factors, including environmental stimuli and the presence of food in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract from the oral cavity right through to the intestines. When a harmful substance is ingested the body acts to eliminate it in different ways to prevent the animal becoming ill, for example, through vomiting and diarrhoea. If one or more of the pathways in controlling feeding is damaged or inhibited, then problems such as obesity occurs.

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Corpus Luteum - Anatomy & Physiology
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Corpus Luteum is latin for "yellow body". The corpus luteum is the structure formed during luteinisation of the follicle after ovulation. The corpus luteum is, however, actually only yellow in the cow and in all other domestic species it is red. The yellow colouration of the corpus luteum is due to the pigment, lutein.

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Corpus Luteum Formation - Anatomy & Physiology
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Luteinisation occurs after ovulation and the collapse of the follicle. The number of corpora lutea formed in the ovary at any one time is directly proportional to the number of oocytes ovulated. Therefore many corpora lutea will be visible on the ovary of polytocous animals. During Luteinisation there is an increase in both the size and weight due to hyperplasia (increase in cell number) and hypertrophy (increase in cell size) within the developing corpus luteum.

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Cranial Nerves
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Cranial nerves are those nerves which arise from the brain and brain stem rather than the spinal cord. Nerves arising from the spinal cord are the peripheral nerves. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and these pairs of nerves passage through foramina in the skull, either individually or in groups. Cranial nerves are traditionally referred to by Roman numerals and these numerals begin cranially and run caudally.

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Deglutition
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Deglutition is the process of swallowing. Food is passed from the oral pharynx into the oesophageal/laryngeal pharynx whilst the epiglottis closes across the entrance of the trachea. It is an involuntary reflex preventing food from passing into the trachea and thus preventing choking and respiratory pneumonia.

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Diaphragm - Anatomy & Physiology
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The Diaphragm is a dome-shaped musculotendinous sheet separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It is convex on its cranial surface. In the neutral position between full inspiration and full expiration, the most cranial part of the diaphragm is in line with the 6th rib.

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Diffusion - Physiology
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Gases or liquids can be unevenly distributed between two areas. If one area has a higher concentration than the other then the differance between these two areas is termed the concentration gradient. The equality is then corrected by the movement of the molecules down this so called gradient from the region of high concentration to that of low. This process is passive as the molecules do not have to be forced to do this and it is reffered to as diffusion.

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Duodenum - Anatomy & Physiology
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The duodenum is the proximal part of the small intestine and extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the jejunum. It has descending and ascending portions and both portions have digestive and absorptive functions.

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Elephant Alimentary System - Anatomy & Physiology
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Elephant anatomy is very much comparable to the horse and rabbit. Microbes are present in the hindgut that produce Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs). VFAs make a substantial contribution to the elephant's total energy requirements. Food has a relatively fast transit time and as a result, elephants have a low digestive efficiency (44% as opposed to 60% in horses). A fast transit time is achieved by a short GIT, reduced caecum and increased GIT diameter. Their digestive strategy is to pass as large a quantity of low quality food through their digestive tract within a short period of time.

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Endocrine & Nutritional Influences on the Skin
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There are various hormones that influence the structure of the skin. These influences may be made apparent by the repeated long-term administration of various glucocorticoids or their analogues. Endogenous imbalances are generally seen in adult mature animals although congenital forms have been seen, especially with hypothyroidism. The hormones implicated as important for maintaining skin structure are thyroxine, cortisol and estradiol. Deficiencies or excessive production may result from abberations in the function of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis, the adrenal gland, thyroid gland or the gonads.

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Foetal Circulation - Anatomy & Physiology
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Prior to birth the foetus is not capable of respiratory function and thus relies on the maternal circulation to carry out gas, nutrient and waste exchange. The foetal and maternal blood never mix, instead they interface at the placenta. Consequently the liver and the lungs are non-functional, and a series of shunts exist in the foetal circulation so that these organs are almost completely by-passed.

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