In this Science Update from Science NetLinks, features an interview with Yoshihiro Kawaoko a virologist at the University of Wisconsin. In this interview, Kawako describes what made 1918 flu virus, which killed 20 million people, so deadly.
This lesson focuses on a current issue in science in order to help students understand the process by which scientific knowledge is developed and refined. The goal of science is to advance human understanding of the natural world and that sometimes means changing long-held views. According to recent studies, many students think that changes come mainly through facts and improved observational and measuring technology. However, they often do not make the distinction that advancements or changes can come from both new observations and reinterpreting old observations.
This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.
In this Science Update, from Science NetLinks, students listen to an interview with Kevin Kelly, co-founder and board chairman of the All Species Foundation in San Francisco. Kelly discusses his mission to discover, identify, and document every species on Earth within the next 25 years. Students then read more information about the project, and conclude by answering some related questions. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLinks lessons and other related resources.
In this online activity, a fictional character, Arnold is missing a number of body parts. Students are presented with a body system and a variety of organs. Students drag and drop all the organs that belong in that particular body system to Arnold's body. Once all four systems are complete, a clothed Arnold will appear.Note: if students drag in an organ that doesn't belong, all the organs pop out and students have to start that system over. This exercise can also be found at Kineticcity.com under mind games.
The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to use the Internet to explore how the immune system functions in a variety of allergic reactions. In middle school, students should have had experiences studying the healthy functioning of the human body. In high school, students should relate their knowledge of normal body functioning to situations in which functioning is impaired due to environmental or hereditary causes. Also at this level, students should try to find explanations for diseases in physiological, molecular, or system terms. Since the primary purpose of this lesson is to explore the role of immune responses in allergic reactions, students should already have a working knowledge of body systems, and the immune system in particular.
In this lesson, students will participate in classroom discussions and visit a website to learn more about animals and how well (or poorly) theyve adapted to satisfying their needs in their natural habitats. This will help move them toward the goal, in later grades, of understanding ecosystems.The Kratts' Creatures website used in this lesson provides students with a simple, visual means for familiarizing themselves with basic world ecosystems as well as some examples of the animals that occupy them.
The focus of this Science NetLinks lesson is threefold. First, to expose students to the fact that all species have a capacity for communication. Second, to enlighten students to the fact that communication abilities range from very simple to extremely complex, depending upon the species. Third, to realize that communication is influenced by a species' genetic makeup, its environment, and the numerous ways by which animals and humans respond to and adapt to their surroundings.
This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.
This Science Update, from Science NetLinks, features an interview with George Georgiou about efforts to make a better vaccine against anthrax. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLink lessons and other related resources.
This Science NetLinks lesson focuses on the bacterial disease known as Anthrax. Anthrax has always been identified as a disease that infects cattle, but there are known cases of people contracting this disease directly from handling infected cattle. In this online lesson the students will research the disease and its impact on human health.
Today, it's hard to find dishwashing liquids or hand soaps that don't advertise their "antibacterial" chemicals. But while it's unclear whether these chemicals actually help us, there's new reason to believe they might do more harm than good. This Science Update examines the common antibacterial agent, Triclocarban or TCC, which is found in hand soaps and other household products.
In this Science NetLinks lesson, students determine what artifacts are, how they are discovered, and what information can be learned from them. They also learn how artifacts are initially buried and then excavated. This lesson is one of a two-part series on archaeology.
In this Science NetLinks lesson, students hypothesize how people lived during a certain time, based on archaeological sites and artifacts. This lesson puts students in the role of archaeologist, using the mysterious city of Catalhoyuk to explore how artifacts can give us clues to how people once lived. Students will explore an archaeological mystery that demonstrates the importance of context in learning from artifacts. Factors such as the artifact's location, its proximity to other artifacts, and the number of similar artifacts found can provide strong clues about the possible purpose and origins of the artifact, as well as the physical characteristics and behaviors of people responsible for creating it. This lesson is the second of a two-part series on archaeology.
This Science Update, from Science NetLinks, features an interview with Purdue University psychologist Susie Swithers about new research suggesting that artificial sweeteners may promote overeating. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLink lessons and other related resources.
This resource illustrates the difference between correlation and causation using the example of a study, which links aggression and body symmetry.
On August 7, 1996, a chunk of rock made front-page news. It was a meteorite from Mars that was believed to contain fossils of one-celled life forms. Although that particular claim is still the subject of much debate, scientists are still intrigued by the possibility that microbes from Mars may have once seeded the Earth. In this Science Update, you'll hear about an unusual experiment that could help provide the answer.
Bacteria get a bad rap for causing disease, but many of these organisms are beneficial. Without them, we wouldn't be able to digest our food, and garbage would never decompose. Now, one group of scientists has found another way to put bacteria to work. They have developed a fuel cell that can convert organic material into electricity.
In this lesson, students will develop their understanding of animal behaviors and the interaction of innate abilities and learned behaviors. The Beagle Brigade is a team of beagles and their human handlers who inspect luggage at U.S. airports searching for agricultural products. They are part of the United States Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS). The USDA is charged with making sure that meat, animal byproducts, fruit, and vegetables that can carry diseases and pests harmful to U.S. agriculture are kept out of the country. Often these products are brought into the country by travelers. The APHIS works in conjunction with the U.S. Customs Service, Public Health Service, and Immigration and Naturalization Service at entry points to the U.S., including land borders, ports, and airports to make sure that this doesn't happen. The Beagle Brigade contributes to this effort by working in the baggage-claim areas at international airports. Dogs in the Beagle Brigade wear green jackets. One reason why beagles were chosen for this work is that they are small and easy to care for. They also are not as intimidating to people who are uncomfortable around dogs--such as larger dogs like German Shepherds. This is important in busy international airports where there are large numbers of people at all times.
An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.
If somebody is really smart, other people might say: "She's got a really big brain." But when it comes to brains, does size really matter? In this Science Update, you'll hear the complicated answer to that simple question.
In this Science NetLinks lesson, students explore the relationship between a bird's beak and its ability to find food and survive in a given environment. Students learn about bird beaks through observation, both virtual and of local birds, and through a variety of games and activities.
In this lesson, students will study bird migratory patterns and the methods that researchers use to study them. Students will be introduced to the concepts of the study of bird movements. The lesson is given in two parts: 1) gathering data about bird populations, and 2) monitoring the movements of bird populations.To assess student learning, they will write a short answer essay explaining the differences between the four types of population movements described in the Movements of Bird Populations resource. Students should be able to describe what kinds of patterns might be observed in each type and how observing and studying each pattern gives scientists the evidence they need to understand the movement of bird populations.
This activity allows the student to independently research several birds of prey and compare the predator/prey relationship. Although the research questions are limited, the background reading should lead the student to make a connection between these birds and the ecosystem in which they live. This may also lead to a discussion of food webs and food chains.
Whether you feel flabby or fit depends on your brain as well as your waistline. This according to neurologist Henrik Ehrsson and his colleagues at University College, London. They stimulated the nerves in volunteers' bodies in a way that tricked them into feeling like their waistlines were shrinking. The illusion activated a part of the subjects' brains called the posterior parietal cortex, which integrates sensory signals from all over the body. The nerve stimulation for each person was the same, yet some experienced the shrinking sensation more strongly--and they had more activity in this part of the brain. That suggests that two people who have identical bodies might experience their body image differently. This may lead to a better understanding of anorexia and other body-image disorders. This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.
Even a 90-degree summer day is cooler than your body temperature. So why does it feel so warm?This Science Update explains the body's adjustment to hot temperatures.
When a pregnant woman doesn't take care of herself, you might expect her baby to suffer from birth defects or childhood illnesses. But what happens when her baby grows up? In this Science Update, you'll hear about a recent study that suggests that malnutrition in the womb can come back to haunt you well into adulthood.
In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will learn about the respiratory system by comparing and contrasting models, building their own models, and giving one another feedback.
In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will design a test to determine the optimum salinity for hatching brine shrimp. In the second brine shrimp lesson of the series, students will raise these brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.
This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of two lessons on brine shrimp. In the first brine shrimp lesson, students determined the optimum salinity for hatching. In this lesson, students will raise brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This Science NetLinks lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.
This lesson is based on students' previous knowledge that many animals share an ecosystem and depend upon each other to survive. This lesson uses the example of the Burrowing Owl to illustrate how human activities can control the fate of a species. In addition to exploring the negative impact community development has had on the owl's habitat, students will read about proactive steps people are taking to reverse this destruction.
The purpose of this lesson, from Science NetLinks, is to understand how the brain receives and sends signals to the body. Until third grade, children view organs of the body as individual parts, e.g. the eyes are for seeing; the stomach digests food. At this level students are ready to start viewing the body as one whole system. One way to ease into this view is to study systems within the body such as the digestive system, circulatory system or the nervous system. This lesson introduces the brain, but not just the brain. It emphasizes how the brain interacts with the rest of the body. Students will learn about this by understanding 'messages' that go from parts of the body to the brain, and vice versa.
Cancer-Sniffing Dogs is a Science Update which gives introduces the concept that diseases might be identified by examining the chemicals which are on a patients breath. A more in depth discussion of disease diagnosis by sampling a patients breath is given as well as links to other articles further reading.
This Science Update focuses on the cat's meow and how it is used to communicate its needs and wants. As such, it provides a good basis for beginning a discussion about not only verbal communication, but the other ways in which living things communicate -- such as through smell, sight, and touch.
Decoding an ancient cave bear. A two-ton, thirteen-foot cave bear, extinct for ten thousand years, has just experienced a rebirth of sorts. From a tooth and a bone, scientists have recovered its entire genetic code.Eddy Rubin, director of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute, says finding genuine cave bear DNA was like looking for a needle in a haystack. The haystack were all the other organisms that were living in the bones and in the tooth of this ancient creature. And the needle was the little bit of the ancient creature's genome DNA, or genes.They used state-of-the-art computer technology to separate the bear genes from the clutter. Jurassic Park fans should note that they can't clone a new cave bear, nor can they recover DNA from creatures as old as the dinosaurs. But they do hope to reconstruct the genetic code of Neanderthals, our closest non-human relatives, to better understand how our own species evolved. This resource contains detailed text description of the research as well as likes for further inquiry.
When you're driving a car, your eyes are in constant motion -- scanning the road for signs, pedestrians, and potential hazards. But if you're talking on a cell phone, watch out: it may give you tunnel vision. You'll find out why in this Science Update.
In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will begin to understand the cell as a system by exploring a more familiar and tangible example of a system - a factory. Throughout the lesson, students will compare the factory to a cell, beginning to understand how both can be thought of as a system. This is the second (and final) Science NetLinks lesson in a short series on cells.
For the first time, scientists have reversed the process of cell division: a trick once thought to be as impossible as un-ringing a bell. Molecular biologist Gary Gorbsky of the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation led the effort. By tinkering with proteins that regulate the process, they turned the clock back from the end of the cell cycle to the middle.