This presentation aims to increase the students’ knowledge about environmental epidemiology, by introducing different study designs used to study health effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution. All study designs are illustrated by examples, starting with the Great Smog (Killer Fog) of London in 1952, one of the landmarks in environmental epidemiology.
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Nearly one third of the world’s population are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution from the household’s use of solid fuel. The fuel is mainly biomass burning under poor combustion conditions
in open fires or primitive stoves and with low ventilation. This costs more than 4 million lives every year and enormous suffering in particular among women and children.
What is air pollution? What is it in the air that is harmful? This lecture focuses on air pollution, where it occur, and how it spread.
In this presentation, we will describe the global levels and trends in major air pollutants and related health burden. Air pollution is an important global risk factor for disease. People who live in more polluted areas develop more often chronic and infectious disease and die prematurely as compared to people living in areas with low air pollution.
In large part of the World, people spend more than 90 percent of the time in indoor environments, where air quality is important for health. The environment outside the building, what goes on inside the building and the exchange of air pollutants affects the indoor air. Tight buildings can reduce energy consumption and entry of outdoor air pollutants, but unless ventilation is right indoor air pollutants from combustion processes, dampness, microbes, the dwellers bio effluents,
appliances, care and cleaning products, clothing, furniture, building materials, the underground and many other sources will build up indoors causing important health effects.
In this presentation, we will discuss how we can know whether one individual is more susceptible to harmful effect of air pollution than others are. Everyone is exposed, but some groups may be more susceptible to the harmful effect of air pollution than others may.
In this lecture, we will describe the mechanisms by which air pollution causes pulmonary health effects in the human population. The pulmonary health effects include exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), increased risk of lower
respiratory tracts infections and lung cancer.
In this presentation, we will describe the mechanisms by which air pollution causes health effects in other parts of the body than the lungs. In continuation of this, we will discuss the important mechanisms of extra pulmonary health effect.
There is a long way before the whole world complies with the WHO guidelines for air quality, but the enormous burden of disease from outdoor air pollution forces us to increase action to come as far as possible. In continuation of this, we will discuss what we can do about air pollution at global, international, national, city and individual levels. Most of the actions to reduce air pollution also mitigates climate change and/or promote health in other ways – so there are many win-win and
In this presentation, we talk about adaptation and evolution of bacteria. Furthermore, we will discuss how you can work with or against evolution, regarding the treatment of bacteria and biofilms.
In this presentation, we will discuss how bacterial pathogen adapt to the human host environment during long-term chronic infections. In continuation of this, we will discuss how the opportunistic pathogen - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - evolves during adaptation to the airways of cystic fibrosis patients.
This presentation introduces bacteria and biofilms. Where do we find bacteria? Is it possible to live without bacteria? Should we be scared of bacteria?
The aim of this presentation is to expand the student knowledge about biofilm properties. In continuation of this, we will present different models for testing and study a biofilm, hereby: the crystal violet assay, filter biofilm, the semi solid model, and the flow-cell system
this presentation focuses on host response to biofilm infection. In continuation of this, we will go through the different types of host response to infections, which consists of at least three components: the non-inflammatory defense, the immune response and the inflammatory response.
In this presentation we will focus’ on host response to chronic infections. In continuation of this, we will talk about the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
this presentation focuses on the problems of treating chronic infections. Furthermore, we will discuss why the host defense seems to be not working probably. In continuation of this, we will discuss whether the problem with chronic infections will increase over the years.
In this presentation, we will introduce the mechanisms involved in the tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics. In continuation of this, we will talk about specific tolerance mechanism, oxidative stress and the development of mutational resistance.
This presentation introduces chronic wounds and the non-healing properties of these. In continuation of this, we will provide a brief introduction to bacterial biofilms in chronic wounds, furthermore we will introduce some of the controversies and challenges we face working with this subject.
The aim of this presentation is to expand the students’ knowledge about the chronic lung infection, Cystic Fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis is probably the most studied biofilm infection and much of our biofilm knowledge derive from this disease.
In this presentation, we will talk about diagnosis of bacteria and chronic infections in clinical practices. We will discuss why we need to diagnose bacteria in infections and what the biggest challenges are in diagnosing bacterial and chronic infections. Finally, we will discuss what the future will bring, regarding bacteria and diagnosis.
In this presentation, we will introduce the student to diagnosis of chronic infections. Diagnosing chronic infections is just as complicated as treating these infections. In continuation of this, we will talk about the three main issues when diagnosing chronic infections and share some experiences we have within this area.
In this presentation, we will introduce you to evolution in biofilms and chronic infections. The general principles of evolution are independent of the specific environment, however some conditions related to time and space are faced by bacteria in chronic infections - and this affects evolution
In this presentation, we will tell you about social evolution in microbes and in continuation of this discuss why social evolution in microbes is important in biofilms.
In this presentation, we will discuss how bacteria are causing disease. Furthermore, we will introduce the student to the term pathogenesis, and in continuation of this present the four main steps, that causes pathogenesis.
The aim of this presentation is to expand the student knowledge about biofilms on central venous catheters (CVC). In continuation of this, we will discuss how to avoid infections regarding CVCs.
In this presentation, we will introduce Oral Biofilms, such as the dental biofilm, also known as dental plaque. The dental biofilm is associated with some of the most well known oral diseases like caries and periodontal disease but it also has beneficial effects.
This presentation will introduce otitis media and chronic ear infections. In continuation of this, we will talk about how middle ear disease affects the populations and why we have to speculate about biofilms in otitis media.
The aim of this presentation is to provide a brief overview of issues related to the treatment of chronic deep infections around joint replacements. In continuation of this, we will discuss what the symptoms are, how to establish the diagnosis and choose what kind of treatment to use, in different phases of the infection.
In this presentation, we will talk about bacteria, and the two life forms planktonic and biofilm growing bacteria. In continuation of this we will explain the difference between planktonic and biofilm growing bacteria.
The aim of this presentation is to expand the student knowledge about skin microbiology. The main skin microbes are bacteria, viruses and fungi, which normally are friendly without causing harms. However, the skin flora is constantly challenges by our every-day life activities.
The focus of this presentation is to expand the students’ knowledge about the Human Gut Microbiome. The gut is - similar to the skin - exposed externally and is therefore a non-sterile environment.
In this presentation, we will tell you about dermal gel fillers and infections related to these. Dermal gel fillers have become increasingly popular during the past 15-20 years, because they can restore some of the youthful appearance in an ageing face. The fillers differ in longevity and composition, some contain micro particles and others do not.
The aim of this presentation is to expand the students’ knowledge about treatment of chronic infections in relation to orthopedic surgery. In the field of orthopedic surgery, several chronic infections exist and sometimes they combine.
In this presentation, we will discuss how to treat chronic infections. In continuation of this, we will discuss some of the issues that one might consider when treating biofilm-associated infections.
The video lesson aims to expand students’ knowledge of abortion as a global health issue. Induced abortion is one of the most contested and controversial problems in the field of global health and an issue that concerns fetus’ rights, women’s rights and human rights. This lesson focuses particularly on abortion stigma and its consequences for women’s health worldwide. The topic of abortion will be discussed within a context of dominant ideas of womanhood, motherhood, and sexuality, addressing abortion not just as a health issue, but also as an ideological battle over gender and sexuality.
Our planet is currently being challenged by dramatic changes to earth and human systems under the influence of climate change and variability. These include changes of population and environmental dynamics that impacts human health. Thus, climate change is considered the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. Health impacts can be direct typically related to extreme weather events; indirect with linkages to climate change induced environmental alterations and damage or in relation to displacement, conflict and social disruption. This presentation provides a series of examples of changes of environmental and social determinants of health with negative or positive health impacts. These include impacts on communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases and mental health of importance in particular in vulnerable urban and rural settings as well as among sensitive community groups exposed to variations in temperature and precipitation patterns.
This presentation provides an introduction and explores the trends in the five sexual and reproductive health priority areas over the last decades:
Maternal and newborn health, family planning, unsafe abortion, sexually transmitted infections and sexual health.
The purpose of this video lesson is to give the students an introduction to the concept continuum of care within the field of sexual and reproductive health. Malaria in pregnancy will be used as an example to demonstrate why it is important to understand that health and disease and the management hereof is not linked to one time point in life or to one place in the health system. The students will learn that to understand the health of today and of tomorrow we need to understand the health of yesterday.
This presentation provides an introduction to the social determinants and drivers of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). Poor social determinants leads to a higher risk of illness and a lower chance of having suitable healthcare access, which leads to illness, which in turn leads right back to a deeper level of poor social determinants. In continuation of this, we’ll discuss how to address social determinants and how we need to be involved.
The purpose of this lesson is to expand the student´s knowledge about diabetes.
The world experience an epidemic of type 2 diabetes, especially in low and middle-income countries. Diabetes is no longer a disease of high-income countries and urban cities but impact upon rural populations and the poorest segments of the population.
Participants: Professor Venkat Narayan.