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Molecular Structure of 1,2-Dichloroethane
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1, 2-Dichloroethane production was first reported in the United States in 1922. It is a clear liquid with a chloroform-like odor. It is sparingly soluble in water and soluble in most organic solvents. When heated to decomposition, it produces toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid. The largest usage of this compound is for the production of vinyl chloride monomer, which is used to produce polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It can also be used as a solvent, fumigant, degreaser, paint remover and intermediate for other organic compounds. It is also used as an antiknock additive in leaded fuels.

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Molecular Structure of 1,2dichloronapthalene
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1,2-Dichloronaphthalene is a PCN (polychlorinated naphthalenes) which is synthesized in a mixture of several congeners, ranging from thin liquids to hard waxes to high melting point solids. PCNs have been used as waxes and impregnants (for protective coatings), water repellents, and wood preservatives. The major sources of release of chlorinated naphthalenes into the environment are likely to be from waste incineration and disposal of items containing chlorinated naphthalenes to landfill. PCNs are no longer produced due to their toxicity. Like related compounds (such as PCBs), chlorinated naphthalenes have been demonstrated to be inducers of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) dependent microsomal enzymes. The environmental impact of PCNs has not been extensively investigated, and PCN concentrations have only been measured in the environment in a few rare cases. Chlorinated naphthalenes are expected to adsorb onto soil and sediments to a large extent, and have been identified to do as such in drainage ditches and sediments from Florida and the San Francisco bay. PCNs have also been identified in birds of prey in Britain and the Netherlands.

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Molecular Structure of 1,3,5,7-tetrafluorocylcooctatetraene
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Tetrafluorocyclooctatetraene consists of eight carbon atoms in a linear arrangement. The unique bonding of the carbons in the chain allow for a very unusual "tub-like" conformation of the molecule, allowing for the pi-electrons from each adjacent carbon to overlap more comfortably. This compound is used in industry primarily in computer simulations, in conjuction with other polyenes, to determine concentrations of unknown compounds with similar spectral properties. Biologically, polyenes, such as tetrafluorocyclooctatetraene, are used in polyene antibiotics, where they bind somewhat sufficiently to sterols.

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Molecular Structure of 1,4-Diazine
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Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic compound and its derivatives are often used as flavoring agents in food. It is most commonly found in coffee and peanut butter. As one of nearly 800 compounds that affect coffee’s aroma, pyrazine is responsible for its bitterness, and in peanut butter, it accounts for the roasted or earthy flavor. Pyrazine is water soluble and its color ranges from clear to pale yellow with a taste threshold of only 1 mg/L. It is a highly flammable irritant, but it poses no safety concern at the levels found in our food.

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Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of 1,5-dichloronapthalene
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1,5-Dichloronaphthalene is a PCN (polychlorinated naphthalenes) which is synthesized in a mixture of several congeners, ranging from thin liquids to hard waxes to high melting point solids. PCNs have been used as waxes and impregnants (for protective coatings), water repellents, and wood preservatives. The major sources of release of chlorinated naphthalenes into the environment are likely to be from waste incineration and disposal of items containing chlorinated naphthalenes to landfill. PCNs are no longer produced due to their toxicity. Like related compounds (such as PCBs), chlorinated naphthalenes have been demonstrated to be inducers of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) dependent microsomal enzymes. The environmental impact of PCNs has not been extensively investigated, and PCN concentrations have only been measured in the environment in a few rare cases. Chlorinated naphthalenes are expected to adsorb onto soil and sediments to a large extent, and have been identified to do as such in drainage ditches and sediments from Florida and the San Francisco bay. PCNs have also been identified in birds of prey in Britain and the Netherlands.

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Molecular Structure of 1-Azanaphthalene
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Most commonly called quinoline, this compound is naturally found in coal tar. It was first extracted in 1834 by German chemist F. Runge and is now used as a flavoring agent, preservative, disinfectant and solvent. It can also be used to make fungicides, dyes, rubber chemicals, and drugs (especially anti-malarial medicines). It is one of several compounds that add to the bitterness in coffee. Although it is safe in our food, it is highly toxic in its vapor form. If inhaled, acute exposure can irritate respiratory tract and cause headaches, nausea, or a coma.

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Molecular Structure of 2,2',6,6'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. Most applications used oily or waxy mixtures of different PCBs that differ from each other in the number and location of chlorine atoms around the aromatic carbon rings. More than 1.5 billion pounds of PCBs were manufactured in the United States (mostly by Monsanto) before their production was cancelled in 1977. Studies suggest that some PCBs interfere with mammal and bird reproduction, and may disturb development or cause cancer in humans. Despite efforts to ban the use and reduce the emissions of PCBs, their disappearance from the environment is either slow or nonexistent. PCBs bioaccumulate and have a tendency to travel to distant places through the air as vapors or on dust particles. In fact, surprisingly large concentrations of PCBs are found in places where they were never used. For example, the animals and people living in the Arctic have high body burdens of PCBs due to the process of global distillation that has brought PCBs from the lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia.

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Molecular Structure of 2,2'-Dichlorobiphenyl
Rating

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. Most applications used oily or waxy mixtures of different PCBs that differ from each other in the number and location of chlorine atoms around the aromatic carbon rings. More than 1.5 billion pounds of PCBs were manufactured in the United States (mostly by Monsanto) before their production was cancelled in 1977. Studies suggest that some PCBs interfere with mammal and bird reproduction, and may disturb development or cause cancer in humans. Despite efforts to ban the use and reduce the emissions of PCBs, their disappearance from the environment is either slow or nonexistent. PCBs bioaccumulate and have a tendency to travel to distant places through the air as vapors or on dust particles. In fact, surprisingly large concentrations of PCBs are found in places where they were never used. For example, the animals and people living in the Arctic have high body burdens of PCBs due to the process of global distillation that has brought PCBs from the lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia. 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl contains a chlorine atom in the ortho-position of each aromatic ring. It is one of the smaller PCBs, meaning that it is more volatile and prone to atmospheric transport. However, having only two chlorines, it is also more reactive.

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Molecular Structure of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzofuran
Rating

Chlorinated dioxins and furans are emitted into the atmosphere from the burning of municipal and chemical wastes (e.g., PCBs) and sometimes formed as byproducts during the manufacturing of chlorinated aromatic compounds. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran is highly carcinogenic (causes cancer) and is related to the most infamous dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Both are often found together in a wide variety of environments all across the planet. Its extreme toxicity, persistence, and ability to spread to remote regions has earned it a place on the United Nation's "Dirty Dozen" list of persistent organic pollutants.

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Molecular Structure of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin
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The chemical, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was first synthesized and characterized in 1957. In the pure form, this compound is white and crystalline. This compound is a known carcinogen, teratogen, and mutagen. In addition, this dioxin causes a skin condition called chloracne. TCDD gained noteriety when it was found to be a contaminant in the herbicide, Agent Orange, used in the Vietnam War. As a result, Agent Orange was banned by FDA.

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Molecular Structure of 2,4-D
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The first successfully developed herbicide, 2,4-D, is a member of the phenoxy family of herbicides. Today, it is the third most widely used herbicide in North America and it is an active ingredient in over 1500 pesticide products. Its predominant uses are in the field of agriculture, specifically on wheat and small grains, corn, rice, sugar-cane, low-till soybeans, pasture, and rangeland. In addition, it is also used in non-crop areas, such as on roadsides, forestry, lawn and turf care, and on aquatic weeds. One of the short-term effects of inhalation or oral exposure to 2,4-D is neuro-toxicity. Symptoms could include stiffness of the arms and legs, lethargy, anorexia, and coma in humans. It could lead to irritation of the gastrointestinal tract thus causing nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Dermal contact leads to skin rash or dermatitis in humans.

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Molecular Structure of 2-Acetylaminofluorene
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2-Acetylaminofluorene is used by scientists to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines and as a positive control in the study of liver enzymes. 2-Acetylaminofluorene was intended for use as a pesticide but was never marketed because of its carcinogenicity in experimental animals.2-Acetylaminofluorene is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. The EPA has not classified 2-acetylaminofluorene for carcinogenicity. Causes are reduced functioning of liver, kidneys, bladder, and pancreas. 2-Acetylaminofluorene occurs as light tan crystalline needles. It is insoluble in water and soluble in alcohols, glycols, ether, acetic acid, and fat solvents. 2-Acetylaminofluorene is available as a grade that is 95 to 98% pure. When heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides (NOx).

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Molecular Structure of 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one
Rating

3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is a flavoring agent for maple and caramel odors. It is a fat soluble molecule that is found in tobacco smoke. Compared to other compounds that give food a caramel or maple odor, 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one has a more burnt quality.

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Molecular Structure of 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylcyclopent-2-en-one
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3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is a molecule in the caramel and maple flavoring category that is described as more burnt. The odor is very strong, burnt, caramel and maple. It has only been accounted for in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

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Molecular Structure of 4,4'-Dichlorobiphenyl
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. Most applications used oily or waxy mixtures of different PCBs that differ from each other in the number and location of chlorine atoms around the aromatic carbon rings. More than 1.5 billion pounds of PCBs were manufactured in the United States (mostly by Monsanto) before their production was cancelled in 1977. Studies suggest that some PCBs interfere with mammal and bird reproduction, and may disturb development or cause cancer in humans. Despite efforts to ban the use and reduce the emissions of PCBs, their disappearance from the environment is either slow or nonexistent. PCBs bioaccumulate and have a tendency to travel to distant places through the air as vapors or on dust particles. In fact, surprisingly large concentrations of PCBs are found in places where they were never used. For example, the animals and people living in the Arctic have high body burdens of PCBs due to the process of global distillation that has brought PCBs from the lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia. 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl contains a chlorine atom in the para-position of each aromatic ring (carbon directly opposite of the ring linkage). It is one of the smaller PCBs, meaning that it is more volatile and prone to atmospheric transport. However, having only two chlorines, it is also more reactive.

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Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of 5-Fluorouracil
Rating

5-Fluorouracil has been used for several decades and is one of the oldest currently used chemotherapy drugs. Two popular forms in use today are Adrucil, an intravenous form, and Efudex, in a skin cream form. 5-Fluorouracil is an antieoplastic antimetabolite, which works by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA by blocking the synthesis of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, it interferes with healthy cells and is an immunosuppressant. The drug is administered by injection, infusion, orally or as a cream to treat colon, rectum, breast, stomach, skin and pancreas cancer. Common side-effects include: reduced red blood cell count, hair loss, loss of appetite, weight loss, headache, and dry and darkening of the skin.

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Molecular Structure of 6-Mercaptopurine
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Gertrude B. Elion invented 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) in 1954 as a leukemia-fighting drug while she was working on antagonists of nucleic acid building blocks. 6MP is converted to thioinosinic acid by the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, thus inhibiting RNA synthesis. Mercaptopurine is a drug that is used to treat certain types of cancer and leukemia. There are many side effects to this drug such as reduction of bone marrow, liver function, ulcers, and diarrhea.

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Molecular Structure of 9-BBN
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9-Borobicyclo[3.3.1]-nonane (9-BBN) is a solid material that reacts readily with water to form a borinic acid and hydrogen. It is extremely susceptible to air oxidation and may spontaneously combust and therefore is handled in solutions. However, it has limited solubility in hydrocarbons, ethers, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. 9-BBN is mainly used for regioselective hydroboration reactions and also valuable in selected functional group reductions. It is an excellent reagent for the preparation of boron containing polymers for polymer derivatization. It is also used as a mild reducing agent for ketones and aldehydes.

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Molecular Structure of ATP
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In plant cells, ATP is produced in the cristae of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Christae are the multiply-folded inner membranes of a cell's mitochondrion, which are finger-like projections. The walls of the cristae are the site of the cell's energy production (it is where ATP is generated). Chloroplasts are made up of stacks of thylakoid disks that contain chlorophyll. Production of ATP molecules from sunlight takes place on thylakoid disks. The mechanism of ATP synthesis is the same in both mitochondria and chloroplasts. An important role of ATP as a plant molecule is to provide energy for biosynthesis. Interestingly enough, this chemical energy can also be converted into light energy in the reaction catalyzed by luciferase. Each molecule of ATP consumed in the reaction produces one photon of light.

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Molecular Structure of AZT
Rating

AZT, or azidothymidine, was first developed by Jerome Horowitz in 1964. It was initially not designed as a drug to combat HIV, but rather, for the National Cancer Institute as cancer chemotherapy. AZT was discovered from a herring and salmon sperm extract. Its activity was not initially described until 1985, and it soon became the first anti-HIV drug approved for use in the United States. Azidothymidine is a nucleoside analogue which acts as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. It blocks the replication of the genetic material necessary for a cell to divide. AZT is used as an anti-HIV drug due to its anti-viral qualities and ability to prevent cellular division.

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Molecular Structure of Abscisic acid
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Abscisic acid (ABA) was first identified and characterized by Frederick Addicott in 1963. ABA is a naturally occurring compound in plants synthesized partially in the chloroplasts. It is a phytohormone that plays an important role in regulating transpiration, stress responses, germination of seeds and embryogenesis in plants. Abscisic acid influences most aspects of plant growth and development to some level, in part due to interactions with other phytohormones. Abscisic acid also promotes abscission of leaves and fruits, and for this reason the name abscisic is given. This plant hormone is the key factor in the adaptation of the plant to environmental stresses such as salinity, drought or water loss, and freezing temperatures. Abscisic acid promotes dormancy and helps the plant tolerate stressful conditions by suspending primary and secondary growth.

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Molecular Structure of Acenaphthylene
Rating

Acenaphthylene is a component of crude oil, coal tar and a product of combustion, which may be produced and released to the environment during natural fires. Acenaphthylene may be released to the environment via manufacturing effluents and the disposal of manufacturing waste byproducts, and also through municipal wastewater treatment facilities and municipal waste incinerators. It should biodegrade in the environment. The reported biodegradation half-lives for acenaphthylene in aerobic soil range from 12 to 121 days. It exists entirely in the vapor-phase in ambient air. The most probable human exposure would be through dermal contact or inhalation at places where it is produced or used and could also occur via urban atmospheres, contaminated drinking water supplies and recreational activities at contaminated waterways. Exposure to high-risk PAHs results in increased incidences of skin and lung cancer. Acenaphthylene is used in dye synthesis, insecticides, fungicides, and in the manufacture of plastics.

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Molecular Structure of Acetaminophen
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Acetaminophen is the active ingredient in Tylenol. It is an odorless, white and crystalline powder with analgesic (pain relieving) and antipyretic (fever reducing) properties that possess a slightly bitter taste. Acetaminophen is used for the relief of fever as well as aches and pains associated with many conditions such as arthritis. However, acetaminophen has no effect if the pain is due to inflammation. The most serious side effect is liver damage due to large doses, chronic use or accompanied use with alcohol or other drugs that also damage the liver. Also, some people can be allergic to acetaminophen which can cause a rash or swelling but these reactions are rare. Acetaminophen has minor uses in the manufacture of azo dyes and as a stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide, photographic chemicals and as a chemical intermediate for pharmaceuticals.

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Molecular Structure of Acetic acid
Rating

Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

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Molecular Structure of Acetone
Rating

Acetone is a major part of our body chemistry. Acetone occurs naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases, forest fires, and as a product of the breakdown of body fat. As seen from previous experiences, acetone can cause health problems due to the role it plays in body functioning. Some properties of acetone are that it easily evaporates, is flammable, and can dissolve in water. Acetone is used as a solvent and reagent in the synthesis of organic compounds.

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Molecular Structure of Acetophenone
Rating

Acetophenone can be used as a fragrance ingredient in soaps, detergents, and perfumes; as a flavoring agent in foods, nonalcoholic beverages, and tobacco; and as a solvent for polymers. Acetophenone is used in perfumery industry, mostly in fragrances like honeysuckle and jasmine, flavors of almond, cherry and strawberry and in tobacco and vanilla works. It is released into the environment from a variety of combustion processes and may be released during its manufacture. Acetophenone has been detected in ambient air and drinking water; exposure of the general public may occur through the inhalation of contaminated air or the consumption of contaminated water. Acute exposure of humans to the vapors of acetophenone may produce skin irritation and transient corneal injury. Acute oral exposure has been observed to cause hypnotic or sedative effects, hematological effects, and a weakened pulse.

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Molecular Structure of Acetyl Peroxide
Rating

Acetyl peroxide is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor. It is generally stored as a 25% solution in dimethyl phthalate to prevent detonation. It may explode if heated, or in contact with combustible materials. As the pure material, acetyl peroxide is unstable and incompatible with organic materials. The compound is harmful by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. It is used as an initiator and catalyst for resins, and it also promotes polymerization in the manufacture of certain plastics.

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Molecular Structure of Acetylcholine
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O-Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that was discovered in 1920, making it the first neurotransmitter ever discovered. This neurotransmitter is located in the brain, neuromuscular junctions, spinal cord, and in both the postganglionic terminal buttons of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system and the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system. The receptor sites can be ionotropic ( nicotinic receptor ) or metabotropic ( muscarinic receptor), which makes it possible for acetylcholine to produce either an IPSP or an EPSP response. Some believe that O-Acetylcholine is somehow linked to memory storage but this link is still unclear. However, the pathways seem better suited as a modulator system than as an information-containing, information-storing system.

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Molecular Structure of Acetylene
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Acetylene is an odorless and colorless gas that was discovered in England by E. Davy. This gas can be made from limestone and coal or from other petrochemical processes. The combustion of acetylene and pure oxygen produces the hottest flame temperature possible of 3300oC. As a result, it is an important fuel for welding and cutting metals. In addition, this chemical can be used as an anesthetic, however overexposure is hazardous. Nowadays acetylene is used for carburization (i.e. hardening) of steel. Research in the last ten years came to the conclusion, that acetylene is the best hydrocarbon available for this purpose.

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Molecular Structure of Acetyl salicylic acid
Rating

Aspirin was synthesized in 1897 by German chemist Felix Hoffman who knew the basic ingredient, salicin. Salicin is found in ground willow bark, which was used by Hippocrates in fifth century B.C. to relieve pain. Aspirin is now used as an anti-inflammatory agent to relieve arthritic pain, and as an antipyretic compound to reduce fever. Another novel use of aspirin is as an inhibitor of blood clot formation by preventing platelets from releasing thromboxane. More than 40 million pounds of aspirin are sold per year in the U.S., equaling 300 tablets per person. Because aspirin is a COX-1 inhibitor, it has the potential to cause gastrointestinal bleeding, thus it is necessary to take only the suggested dose.

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Molecular Structure of Acroleic acid
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Acrylic acid is a colorless liquid that has an irritating bitter odor and was discovered by Josef Redtenbacher, a German chemist. This substance is miscible with water and most organic solvents. Known also as 2-propeonic acid, this plant molecule occurs naturally in marine algae and has been found in the rumen fluid of sheep. Acrylic acid has been found to polymerize easily when exposed to heat, light, or metals so, therefore a polymerization inhibitor is added to commercial for storage. The acid is used in the manufacture of plastics, floor polish, paint formulations, leather finishings, and paper coatings. Exposure to the liquid occurs primarily in the workplace and can irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes of humans. Acrylic acid has not been classified as a carcinogen.

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Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Acrylamide
Rating

Acrylamide is produced from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is used to produce water-soluble polymers for water treatment and oil recovery; and has other uses. During its production, use, and disposal, it is released to the environment, mainly to water. By inhalation, ingestion, or contact, acrylamide is toxic, severely affecting the nervous system, respiratory system, skin, and eyes. It causes cancer in animals and is a suspected human carcinogen. Although acrylamide is degraded readily in the environment, it is considered a pollutant of water because oxygen depletion may occur when breaking down large amounts (as with accidents). The EPA regulates the chemical.

Subject:
Life Science
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Acrylonitrile
Rating

Acrylonitrile is an industrial chemical used to manufacture fibers, resins, plastics, and rubbers to produce various consumer goods. During its production, use, and disposal, it is mainly released to the air, due to a high evaporation rate, but also to soil and water. By inhalation, ingestion, or contact, acrylonitrile is toxic at high levels, severely affecting the nervous system, respiratory system, skin, and eyes. It causes cancer in animals and is a suspected human carcinogen. Although acrylonitrile is produced on a large scale, it reacts with chemicals and sunlight when released to the air, thus has a half-life less than 50 hrs. When released to soil or water, bacteria typically degrade it. Therefore, the environment is not permanently affected when the chemical is regulated.

Subject:
Life Science
Chemistry
Physics
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Acyclovir hydrate
Rating

Acyclovir hydrate is used in the treatment of shingles and herpes simplex virus and as well as other types of herpes viral infections. This may help people co-infected with HIV and herpes simplex live longer. High dose acyclovir is used to treat hairy leukoplakia, a viral infection which usually shows up on both sides of the tongue. Possible side effects of this therapeutic substance are stomach pain, headache, nausea and/or hair-loss.

Subject:
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Adenine
Rating

Adenine is one of the two purine bases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, whereas in RNA, it pairs with uracil. Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be linked with up to three phosphoric acid units, yielding adenine derivatives that perform important functions in cellular metabolism.

Subject:
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Adenosine
Rating

Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside occurring in all of the cells of the body. It is chemically 6-amino-9-B-D-ribofuanosyl-9-H-purine and has the chemical formula of C10H13N5O4. Adenosine naturally hydrogen bonds to thymidine by two hydrogen bonds to construct a stable structure. Adenosine is a purine, meaning that it is a single ring structure. A carbon sugar ring attaches to nitrogen in the base to form an N-glycosylic bond. The nitrogenous bases, which are primarily nonpolar, pack tightly enough to exclude water and form a stable, primarily nonpolar environment in the helix interior.

Subject:
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Adipic acid
Rating

Adipic acid is odorless and colorless white crystals or powder with a sour taste. Adipic acid is used primarily in the manufacture of nylon-6,6 polyamide and polyester polyols for polyurethane systems. It is also used for raw materials in pharmaceuticals, perfume fixatives, acidulants, leavening and buffering agents in non-alcoholic beverages, gelatins and puddings. In addition, adipic acid is used in manufacturing plasticizers and lubricants components. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and acetone. Adipic acid can be prepared from acetylene and acetic acid in the presence of tert-butyl peroxide. It has been manufactured from either cyclohexane or phenol.

Subject:
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Adrenaline
Rating

Adrenaline or epinephrine was first extracted in 1901 from adrenal glands of mammals by Takamine. The first synthesis of epinephrine was performed by Friedrich Stolz. This hormone is secreted by the adrenal glands during anger or fear, and it causes increased heart rate, elevated glucose levels in the blood, and aids in the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue. Physicians use this hormone as a stimulant in cardiac arrest, as a vasoconstrictor in shock, as a bronchodilator and antispasmodic in bronchial asthma, and to lower intra-ocular pressure in the treatment of glaucoma.

Subject:
Life Science
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Alanine
Rating

Alanine is a non-essential amino acid whose main function seems to be the metabolism of tryptophan and pyridoxine. Alanine is located in prostate fluid, and may play an important role in prostate health. Good sources of alanine are meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fish. High levels of alanine along with low levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine have been associated with the Epstein-Barr virus and chronic fatigue syndrome. Low levels have been found in patients with hypoglycemia, diabetes, and alcohol induced hepatitis.

Subject:
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Molecular Structure of Aldrin
Rating

Aldrin is an insecticide that was applied to corn and cotton crops between the 1950s and 1970s, and used to control termites until the U.S. EPA banned it in 1987. It is listed on the U.N.'s list of priority pollutants due to its toxic effects on humans and wildlife. Humans are exposured to aldrin (and dieldrin) by eating contaminated foods, including fish, seafood, and root crops. Aldrin bioaccumulates and can affect the nervous system. In the US aldrin has been found in over 200 of the over 1600 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Subject:
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database