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100,000,000 Guinea Pigs : The Dangers of Consumption
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In 1927, responding to the seemingly overpowering claims of advertisers and mass marketers, engineer Frederick Schlink and economist Stuart Chase published Your Money's Worth, which argued for an "extension of the principle of buying goods according to impartial scientific tests rather than according to the fanfare and triumphs of higher salesmanship." Your Money's Worth became an instant best-seller, and the authors organized Consumers' Research, a testing bureau that provided information and published product tests in a new magazine, Consumers' Research Bulletin. The 1929 stock market crash heightened suspicion of consumer capitalism, and the magazine had 42,000 subscribers by 1932. In 1933, Schlink and Arthur Kallet (executive secretary of Consumers' Research) published 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs: Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics. The book struck a responsive chord in depression-era America--it went through thirteen printings in its first six months and became one of the best-selling books of the decade. The book's first chapter ("The Great American Guinea Pig"), gave a flavor of their vigorous arguments.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
10,000,000 Members by Christmas On Christmas Eve, a Candle in Every Window and Red Cross Members in Every Home.
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Poster showing a holly-decked candle in a window, with the Red Cross symbol in its glow. Forms part of: Willard and Dorothy Straight Collection.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
124 Cartridges for 15/6 and Your Money Back with Interest
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Poster is text only. Published by the National War Savings Committee, 18 & 19, Abingdon Street, Westminster, S.W. Poster no. 18. 20m. Wt. 5213/331. (7940). Title from item.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
140th Flag Day, 1777-1917 the Birthday of the Stars and Stripes, June 14th, 1917.
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Poster showing a man raising the American flag, with a minuteman cheering and an eagle flying above. Text continues: 'Tis the Star Spangled Banner, oh, long may it wave, o'er the land of the free and the home of the brave! Monogram unidentified. Forms part of: Willard and Dorothy Straight Collection.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
"1500 Doomed":  People's Press  Reports on the Gauley Bridge Disaster
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The deadly lung disease silicosis is caused when miners, sandblasters, and foundry and tunnel workers inhale fine particles of silica dust--a mineral found in sand, quartz, and granite. In 1935, approximately 1,500 workers--largely African Americans who had come north to find work--were killed by exposure to silica dust while building a tunnel in Gauley Bridge, West Virginia. Ordinarily, silicosis takes a several years to develop, but these West Virginia tunnel workers were falling ill in a matter of months because of exposure to unusually high concentrations of silica dust. The crisis over silicosis suddenly became a national issue, as seen in this article in the radical newspaper Peoples' Press . In 1936 congressional hearings on the Gauley Bridge disaster, it was revealed that company officials and engineers wore masks to protect themselves when they visited the tunnel, but they failed to provide masks for the tunnelers themselves, even when the workers requested them.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
The 19th Amendment
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plan on using this image to replicate Cynthia's "human timeline" activity to create a US/VA History review for the 11th grade state standadized test (SOL) using only primary sources from the LOC website. This activity will require students to use their knowledge of understanding primary sources to identifiy events in US history and analyze documents to piece together the material they learned throughout the school year leading up to the state test. This activity also helps students practice analyzing primary sources including charts, graphs, pictures, quotes, etc. which are tested on the state SOL. There are a number of ways to conduct this activity, but here are a few examples:

1) Since there will be a lot of documents (from the conception of America to present day) you could break the images up into time periods or themes and ask students to identify and order them. Then, each group can share their resources.

2) The whole class can work together like we did to identify and order the events (this would require a lot of time and brain power).

3) Introduce a set number of images each class period to add to the timelime--this can be posted around the room continuously over the course of your entire review period.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
2009 Maize Genome Collection
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The authors of the research presented in this special collection used the first description of the B73 maize genome to probe some of the most intriguing questions in genetics and plant biology. Read about maize centromeres, new insights into transposon types and distribution, the abundance of very short FLcDNAs encoding predicted peptides, and many other "genetic jewels" contained herein.

Subject:
Biology
Genetics
Material Type:
Data Set
Primary Source
Provider:
Public Library of Science
Provider Set:
Biology and Life Sciences
20 at Home to 1 in the Trenches
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Poster showing a crowd of workers measuring and outfitting a seated monumental man with uniform and supplies. Title continues: It takes the best co-operative efforts of from six to twenty workers at home to properly equip and maintain one American soldier at the front. [...] With consistent help and encouragement for their wage-earning partners and themselves, from all classes of the people, American industry can and will win this war for human liberty. Breeders of industrial war at home must be eliminated. National co-operation is the slogan to insure victory for Democracy over Autocracy. Issued by the National Industrial Conservation Movement, 30 Church Street, New York City. Copies supplied on request. No. E-7. Title from item.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
2285 New Yorkers Volunteered in One Week--is Your Name On This List?
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Poster showing news photographs of the war effort by the Official British Press Bureau and by International Film in Leslie's, lists of hundreds of recent American volunteers, and addresses of recruiting stations. Photographs are captioned: Life in the United States training camps; That bombproof smile; Where Pershing will soon be; Signalling by daylight. The Mayor's Committee on National Defense, The Recruiting Committee, 50 East 42nd Street, New York. Bulletin No. 2. Forms part of: Willard and Dorothy Straight Collection.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
2 Inspiring Cablegrams
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Poster showing bust portraits of Edward N. Hurley, chairman of the Shipping Board, and General Pershing, each with a copy of a cablegram. The cablegrams, discussing the provision of almost 100 ships, are quoted at length beneath. Issued by Publications Section, United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, Philadelphia.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
2nd City of London Battalion, Royal Fusiliers. Recruits Required at Once to Complete This Fine Battalion
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Poster showing a battalion marching down a lane, as two women standing by a gate watch and wave. Text continues: Uniform and necessaries immediately on enlistment. Army rates of pay & allowances. God save the King. Recruiting office, The Armoury, 9, Tufton Street, Westminster, S.W. Title from item.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
The $3,000,000,000 Punch
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Poster showing Uncle Sam in coat labelled "Liberty Bond" punching the Kaiser. Prepared by Liberty Loan Committee, 120 Broadway, New York. Forms part of: Willard and Dorothy Straight Collection.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
3,000,000 Belgians Are Destitute in Belgium. they Must Not Starve. Support the Local Fund
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Poster showing a woman in a helmet (Minerva, personification of Britain?) caring for a mother and children. Printed by Crowther & Goodman, 124 Fenchurch St., E.C. Title from item.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
3al Jamal bi wasat Beirut - عالجمل بوسط بيروت - On a Camel in Downtown Beirut
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This funny song by Lebanese singers describes their ride on camels through the center of Beirut. The video shows images of downtown Beirut and how unusual it is for camels to be in a big city in the Arab world.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Languages
World Cultures
Material Type:
Primary Source
Provider:
Individual Authors
Author:
Michelle Keserwany
426th Anniversary of the Discovery of America, Liberty Day, Saturday, October 12th, 1918 Buy Liberty Bonds today - for Liberty today, tomorrow and Forever!
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Poster showing a heroic military statuary group, beneath flags and the legend, "United for liberty." Cigars United.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team
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Several special fighting forces from the United States, made up of single ethnic groups, made significant contributions during World War II, including the African American Tuskegee Airmen and the Navajo Code Talkers. The 442nd Regimental Combat Team was made up solely of Japanese Americans, some of whom were recruited directly from internment camps. (Some Japanese American men who would later become leaders, such as Senator Daniel Inouye, were members of the 442nd.) The images in this group provide a look at the lives and sacrifices of the men of the 442nd, the most highly decorated American unit in WWII. The photographs in this group were all taken for the government-run War Relocation Authority (WRA) and are meant to portray the proud patriotism of the men and their families. One photo shows three women holding their babies, with photographs of their enlisted husbands. Another is a portrait of an older couple who had five sons in the 442nd. Other photographs reflect the training the soldiers of the 442nd received, their life in the battlefield, and their triumphant homecoming. Other documents in this group show a more personal side of the men of the 442nd. One soldier's photo album depicts his personal experiences as a member of the combat team. A 50-page booklet, The Story of the 442nd Combat Team, compiled by members of the team, has this quote from Franklin D. Roosevelt on the dedication page: "Americanism is a matter of the mind and heart; Americanism is not and never was a matter of race and ancestry." On a more poignant note, oil paintings by Japanese American artist Henry Sugimoto reflect the emotions, pain, and suffering these individuals and their families experienced as a result of the war. In Senninbari (Thousand Stiches), a woman holds a scarf of remembrance as a ghostly Nisei soldier looks down from the sky. And in Send Off Husband at Jerome Camp, an internee family stays behind the camp gates as their soldier father/husband goes off to fight for the United States.

Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Lesson Plan
Primary Source
Reading
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
University of California
Provider Set:
Calisphere - California Digital Library
The 4-Leaf Clover of Industry
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Poster showing a four-leaf clover on stem "Co-operation," with leaves "Wage payer," "Wage earner," "Farmer," and "Consumer." Title continues: The business men and all good citizens in this community are in favor of industrial co-operation. We believe that co-operation is the life-giving stem of prosperity for those who pay wages, those who receive wages and those who spend the wages paid by our American factories, mines, mills, shops, etc. Industrial peace is needed to win this war for democracy. Agitators are breeders of treason and this community has no room for them. Issued by the National Industrial Conservation Movement, 30 Church Street, New York City. Copies supplied on request. No. E-3.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
50,000 Going Over! Will You Be One of them? 50,000 for A.E.F.! Are You "On"?
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American Expeditionary Forces recruiting poster showing scenes in France like those new recruits can expect to see upon arrival in France with the A.E.F. Poster caption: Do you want to see Paris, too? Then ask the Army Recruiting Officer at once about your chance to be one of the 50,000 lucky men to see France and the Rhine, and the battlefields of Europe - free. Tourists are clamoring for a chance to pay for this privilege. Don't delay - See the Army Recruiting Officer to-day. Poster caption: Here's your chance! 50,000 men are now enlisting for service in the A.E.F. to see France, and the Rhine with its historic castles and forts. Infantry, cavalry, field artillery, engineers, and medical department open. Ask the Army Recruiting Officer about educational opportunities in the A.E.F. Photo illustrations provided by Keystone View Company and courtesy of Collier's "The National Weekly." Two posters printed on one sheet, uncut, mounted on linen. Title from item.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
$5.00 W[Ar] S[Avings] S[Tamps] for $4.12 Save and Buy for Cash or Installment Plan, 25c[Ents] Down, 25c[Ents] Anytime.
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Poster is text only. War Savings Stamps issued by the United States government. Forms part of: Willard and Dorothy Straight Collection.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - World War I Posters
5 Pythagorean Solids
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This OER explores the basic organization of the Pythagorean Solids. It contains both an activity as well as resources for further exploration. It is a product of the OU Academy of the Lynx, developed in conjunction with the Galileo's World Exhibition at the University of Oklahoma.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
History
Mathematics
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Diagram/Illustration
Homework/Assignment
Lecture Notes
Primary Source
Student Guide
Author:
Brent Purkaple
Kerry Magruder
5 To One Ha
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Another show of Northern optimism in the early months of the Lincoln administration. Uncle Sam approaches from the left holding a bayonet, causing five Southern soldiers to flee in panic to the right. In their haste to retreat the Confederates drop their flag, muskets, a hat, and a boot. A black child and two black men, one fiddling, watch with obvious glee from the background. Prominent in the center foreground are a mound marked "76" bearing an American flag and a crowing cock. In the background are the Capitol at Washington (left) and the palmetto trees of South Carolina (right).|Entered . . . by W. Wiswell . . . Ohio, June 8th 1861.|The Library's copy of the print is the copyright deposit impression.|Title appears as it is written on the item.|Weitenkampf, p. 132.|Forms part of: American cartoon print filing series (Library of Congress)|Published in: American political prints, 1766-1876 / Bernard F. Reilly. Boston : G.K. Hall, 1991, entry 1861-28.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - Cartoons 1766-1876
5 ways to build lasting self-esteem
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5 simple steps for helping to cultivate good self-esteem, including a great TED talk by Guy Winch.
"TED Videos are not officially licensed with any kind of open licensing. However, TED allows the users to freely view and download the videos without restraint. The website is provided as a public service to promote the spread of good ideas."

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Primary Source
Author:
Guy Winch
Nadine Hachach-haram
6 Cents. Humbug Glory Bank
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Another mock bank note parodying the "shinplasters" of the 1837 panic. Such small-denomination notes were based on the division of the Spanish dollar, the dominant specie of the time. Hence they were issued in sums of 6 (more accurately 6 1/4), 25, 50, and 75 cents. These fractional notes proliferated during the Panic of 1837 with the emergency suspension of specie (i.e., money in coin) payments by New York banks on May 10 of that year. "Treasury Note" and "Fifty Cents Shin Plaster" (nos. 1837-9 and -11) also use the bank note format to comment on the dismal state of American finances. Unlike these, however, "Humbug Glory Bank" is actually the same size as a real note. The note is payable to "Tumble Bug Benton," Missouri senator and hard-money advocate Thomas Hart Benton, and is signed by "Cunning Reuben [Whitney, anti-Bank adviser to Jackson and Van Buren] Cash'r" and "Honest Amos [Kendall, Postmaster General and influential advisor to Van Buren] Pres't." It shows several coins with the head of Andrew Jackson at left, a jackass with the title "Roman Firmness," a hickory leaf (alluding to Jackson's nickname "Old Hickory"), and a vignette showing Jackson's hat, clay pipe, spectacles, hickory stick, and veto (of the 1832 bill to recharter the Bank of the United States) in a blaze of light. Above is a quote from Jackson's March 1837 farewell address to the American people, "I leave this great people prosperous and happy."|Copyrighted by Anthony Fleetwood, 1837.|Published at 89 Nassau Str. New York.|Signed facetiously: Martin Van Buren Sc.|The print was deposited for copyright on August 21, 1837, by Anthony Fleetwood, and published at the same address (89 Nassau Street) as "Capitol Fashions" (no. 1837-1), also an etching. The Library's impression (the copyright deposit proof) is printed on extremely thin tissue.|Title appears as it is written on the item.|Forms part of: American cartoon print filing series (Library of Congress)|Published in: American political prints, 1766-1876 / Bernard F. Reilly. Boston : G.K. Hall, 1991, entry 1837-10.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
Library of Congress
Provider Set:
Library of Congress - Cartoons 1766-1876
"80 Rounds in Our Pants Pockets": Orville Quick Remembers Pearl Harbor
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The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, stunned virtually everyone in the U.S. military: Japan's carrier-launched bombers found Pearl Harbor totally unprepared. In this 1991 interview, conducted by John Terreo for the Montana Historical Society, serviceman Orville Quick, who was assigned to build airfields and was very near Pearl Harbor on December 6, 1941, remembers the attack. He also provided a vivid, and humorous, account of the chaos from a soldier's point of view.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
"The A-Bomb Won't Do What You Think!": An Argument Against Reliance on Nuclear Weapons
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For four years after the U.S. dropped atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end World War II, America held a monopoly on the production of atomic weapons. During this period, debate centering on the use of nuclear bombs in future wars proliferated among government officials, scientists, religious leaders, and in the popular press. In the following article from Collier's, former Navy lieutenant commander William H. Hessler, using data from the Strategic Bombing Survey, argued that saturation bombing of urban areas during World War II, while devastating for civilians, did not achieve war aims. A future atomic war, therefore, might well destroy cities but fail to stop enemy aggression. Furthermore, with a much higher urban concentration than the Soviet Union, the U.S. had more to lose from atomic warfare. The article, while providing detailed explanations of the bomb's destructive capability, demonstrated the lack of information available regarding the long-term medical and ecological effects of radioactivity. Hessler's prose also evoked both the fascination that gadgetry of atomic warfare held for Americans of the time and the fear many felt about the risks involved in putting this technology to use. On September 24, 1949, one week after publication of this article, news that the Russians had conducted atom bomb tests shocked the nation. The following April, a National Security Council report to President Harry S. Truman advised development of a hydrogen bomb--some 1,000 times more destructive than an atom bomb--and a massive buildup of non-nuclear defenses. The subsequent outbreak of war in Korea in June 1950 justified to many a substantial increase in defense spending.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
ACT UP and the AIDS Crisis
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No Strings Attached
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This collection uses primary sources to explore AIDS activism during the 1980s. Digital Public Library of America Primary Source Sets are designed to help students develop their critical thinking skills and draw diverse material from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States. Each set includes an overview, ten to fifteen primary sources, links to related resources, and a teaching guide. These sets were created and reviewed by the teachers on the DPLA's Education Advisory Committee.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Provider:
Digital Public Library of America
Provider Set:
Primary Source Sets
Author:
Franky Abbott
A. F. of L. Delegates.
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Faced with stiff business opposition, a conservative political climate, hostile courts, and declining membership, leaders of the American Federeration of Labor (AFL) grew increasingly cautious during the 1920s. Labor radicals viewed AFL leaders as overpaid, self-interested functionaries uninterested in organizing unorganized workers into unions. A cartoon by William Gropper published in the Communist Yiddish newspaper Freiheit (and reprinted in English in the New Masses ) caricatures delegates to a 1926 AFL convention in Atlantic City. Well

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
"AIDS Is an Illness of People of Color": Health Service Organizations Advocate Increased Federal Funding to Prevent AIDS in Minority Communities
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In 1981, the U.S. medical community noticed a significant number of gay men living in urban areas with rare forms of pneumonia, cancer, and lymph disorders. The cluster of ailments was initially dubbed Gay-Related Immune Disease (GRID), but when similar illnesses increased in other groups, the name changed to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The mid-1980s saw a number of advances toward understanding and treating the disease, but no vaccine or cure was forthcoming. Gay advocacy and community-based organizations began providing services and pressuring government to increase funding for finding a cure and helping victims. As two representatives of AIDS health services organizations stated in the following 1987 testimony to Congress, AIDS spread in disproportionately high numbers throughout U.S. minority and disadvantaged communities. They advocated increased federal funding for prevention efforts targeted at minority communities and administered by community-based organizations. Despite such efforts, the number of minority AIDS cases continued to rise sharply, and by 1996, African Americans accounted for a higher percentage of reported adult cases of AIDS (41%) than did whites.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
AP US Cold War Youtube clips.docx
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This lesson is a series of videos that cover Cold War fears of the 1940s and 50s. It describers how the American Public were given measures to protect themselves against and invasion or an atomic attack. The lesson also has the student to view several videos on the domestic policies of the United states and a general overview of Cold war policies. Students will have to interpret point of view and argumentation from both sides of the political spectrum.

Subject:
History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Case Study
Primary Source
Author:
Domenic Martelli