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88 Open Essays: A Reader for Students of Composition & Rhetoric
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4.5 stars

PLEASE NOTE: Some K-12 sites block access to Google Docs where this file resides. If you are unable to access it, it is also available at https://human.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Literature_and_Literacy/Book%3A_88_Open_Essays_-_A_Reader_for_Students_of_Composition_and_Rhetoric_(Wangler_and_Ulrich)

This book is a free and open resource for composition instructors and students, full of essays that could supplement OER rhetoric and writing texts that lack readings. All of the essays in this reader are versatile rhetorically and thematically. It is arranged alphabetically by author name. Each essay has a series of hashtags that apply to the essay in some way. You can search for essays thematically for topics like education, the environment, politics, or health. You can also search for essays based on composition concepts like analysis, synthesis, and research. You can search for essays that are based on shared values, essays that rely heavily on ethos, logos, or pathos, essays that are very kairos-dependent, and essays that are scholarly.

This collection was created in Google Docs so that it is easily adapted and edited.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Reading
Textbook
Author:
Sarah Wangler
Tina Ulrich
Date Added:
08/19/2019
Remix
Analyzin
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This lesson guides students through analysis of non-print media as a vehicle for argument.
Added to this are Pulitzer Prize Winning Photographs for them to pick from.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Author:
Kris Farrar
Date Added:
08/08/2019
Remix
Analyzin
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CC BY-NC
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This lesson guides students through analysis of non-print media as a vehicle for argument.
Added to this are Pulitzer Prize Winning Photographs for them to pick from. It is important to note that the photos contain graphic images.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Author:
Tina Roberts
Date Added:
05/19/2020
Analyzing Famous Speeches as Arguments
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Students are often asked to perform speeches, but rarely do we require students to analyze speeches as carefully as we study works of literature. In this unit, students are required to identify the rhetorical strategies in a famous speech and the specific purpose for each chosen device. They will write an essay about its effectiveness and why it is still famous after all these years.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
ReadWriteThink
Provider Set:
ReadWriteThink
Date Added:
09/25/2013
Analyzing Grammar Pet Peeves
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Some Rights Reserved
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By analyzing Dear Abby's rant about bad grammar usage, students become aware that attitudes about race, social class, moral and ethical character, and "proper" language use are intertwined.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Composition and Rhetoric
Language, Grammar and Vocabulary
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
ReadWriteThink
Provider Set:
ReadWriteThink
Date Added:
09/25/2013
Argument & Critical Thinking
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CC BY
Rating
5.0 stars

In this learning area, you will learn how to develop an argumentative essay and stronger critical thinking skills. This learning area will help you develop your arguments, understand your audience, evaluate source material, approach arguments rhetorically, and avoid logical fallacies. Here, you’ll also learn about evaluating other arguments and creating digital writing projects related to your argument.

Subject:
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Excelsior College
Provider Set:
Excelsior College Online Writing Lab
Date Added:
11/06/2018
Bay College - ENGL 101 - Rhetoric & Composition
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating
5.0 stars

Online OER text adapted for use in ENGL 101 - Rhetoric & Composition by Amber Kinonen, Jennifer McCann, Todd McCann, and Erica Mead for Bay College.

© 2017 Bay College and Content Creators. Except where otherwise noted this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Bay College
Author:
Amber Kinonen
Erica Mead
Jennifer McCann
Todd McCann
Date Added:
03/30/2017
Remix
Beyond facts and statistics: Restoring order to how we understand logos in writing
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This resource aims to generate ideas and possibilities about how to advance student understanding of logic in writing beyond the notion that logic is always a collection of data points or a reference to facts. Instead of reducing logic to numbers and statements, this source hopes to introduce students and teachers to the existential questions that are always involved in the logical appeals of a text: how do we know what we know and why does it matter?

Subject:
Literature
Philosophy
Composition and Rhetoric
Reading Literature
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Samuel Sullivan
Date Added:
06/02/2020
Beyond facts and statistics: Restoring order to how we understand logos in writing
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CC BY-NC-SA
Rating
0.0 stars

This resource aims to generate ideas and possibilities about how to advance student understanding of logic in writing beyond the notion that logic is always a collection of data points or a reference to facts. Instead of reducing logic to numbers and statements, this source hopes to introduce students and teachers to the existential questions that are always involved in the logical appeals of a text: how do we know what we know and why does it matter?

Subject:
Literature
Philosophy
Composition and Rhetoric
Reading Literature
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Homework/Assignment
Lecture Notes
Author:
Bryan Harvey
Date Added:
12/21/2019
Certainty & Doubt in the writings of Jonathan Edwards and Langston Hughes
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CC BY-NC-SA
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5.0 stars

The activities here work on analysis and synthesis skills. They take canonized text that are often taught at different times in the school year due to their placement in U.S. and world history and ask students to pair them together. A variety of activities and assessments are described or suggested throughout this resource to help students explore the boundaries surrounding certainty and doubt and lived experience. 

Subject:
English Language Arts
Composition and Rhetoric
Reading Literature
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Assessment
Homework/Assignment
Author:
Bryan Harvey
Date Added:
12/23/2019
Chinese Rhetoric and Writing: An Introduction for Language Teachers
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The authors of Chinese Rhetoric and Writing offer a response to the argument that Chinese students' academic writing in English is influenced by "culturally nuanced rhetorical baggage that is uniquely Chinese and hard to eradicate." Noting that this argument draws from "an essentially monolingual and Anglo-centric view of writing," they point out that the rapid growth in the use of English worldwide calls for "a radical reassessment of what English is in today's world." The result is a book that provides teachers of writing, and in particular those involved in the teaching of English academic writing to Chinese students, an introduction to key stages in the development of Chinese rhetoric, a wide-ranging field with a history of several thousand years. Understanding this important rhetorical tradition provides a strong foundation for assessing and responding to the writing of this growing group of students.

Subject:
Languages
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
WAC Clearinghouse
Author:
Andy Kirkpatrick
Zhichang Xu
Date Added:
03/05/2015
Composing Ourselves and Our World: A Guide to First Year Writing
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CC BY
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This textbook is meant for first year English Composition Courses. The text covers the essentials of composition and rhetoric in a recursive manner and introduces research skills.

When you are eager to get started on the coursework in your major that will prepare you for your career, getting excited about an introductory college writing course can be difficult. However, regardless of your field of study, honing your writing skills—and your reading and critical-thinking skills—gives you a more solid academic foundation.

In college, academic expectations change from what you may have experienced in high school. The quantity of work you are expected to do is increased. When instructors expect you to read pages upon pages or study hours and hours for one particular course, managing your work load can be challenging.

The quality of the work you do also changes. It is not enough to understand course material and summarize it on an exam. You will also be expected to seriously engage with new ideas by reflecting on them, analyzing them, critiquing them, making connections, drawing conclusions, or finding new ways of thinking about a given subject. Educationally, you are moving into deeper waters. A good introductory writing course will help you swim.

Subject:
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Amy Locklear
Angela Fowler
Elizabeth Burrows
Heath Fowler
Date Added:
01/24/2019
Composition I
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating
5.0 stars

An introductory course that focuses on sentence and paragraph structure, title development, and writing by method, including narration, description, process, compare/contrast, cause and effect, persuasion, and more. A solid overview of citations and sources, as well as thesis statements and conclusions, is also provided. 

Subject:
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Reading
Unit of Study
Author:
Stephanie Pesce
Date Added:
06/18/2020
Deliberative Rhetoric: Arguing about Doing
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Christian Kock’s essays show the essential interconnectedness of practical reasoning, rhetoric and deliberative democracy. They constitute a unique contribution to argumentation theory that draws on – and criticizes – the work of philosophers, rhetoricians, political scientists and other argumentation theorists. It puts rhetoric in the service of modern democracies by drawing attention to the obligations of politicians to articulate arguments and objections that citizens can weigh against each other in their deliberations about possible courses of action.

Subject:
Philosophy
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Primary Source
Textbook
Author:
Christian Kock
Date Added:
11/17/2017
EmpoWord: A Student-Centered Anthology & Handbook for College Writers
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EmpoWord is a reader and rhetoric that champions the possibilities of student writing. The textbook uses actual student writing to exemplify effective writing strategies, celebrating dedicated college writing students to encourage and instruct their successors: the students in your class. Through both creative and traditional activities, readers are encouraged to explore a variety of rhetorical situations to become more critical agents of reading, writing, speaking, and listening in all facets of their lives. Straightforward and readable instruction sections introduce key vocabulary, concepts, and strategies. Three culminating assignments (Descriptive Personal Narrative; Text-Wrestling Analysis; Persuasive Research Essay) give students a chance to show their learning while also practicing rhetorical awareness techniques for future writing situations.

Subject:
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Portland State University
Provider Set:
PDXOpen
Author:
Shane Abrams
Date Added:
07/11/2018
English 101 E-Text Writing for the Rhetorical Situation
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CC BY
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Introduction to academic writing and research focuses on preparing students for writing later in their college education and their post-graduation career path.

The skills learned in this course will help prepare the student for different types of situations where written and oral communication are essential.

Subject:
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Full Course
Reading
Textbook
Author:
OpenNow from Cengage
Date Added:
10/10/2018
English Composition 1
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3.44444444444 stars

Composition I focuses on principles of writing, critical reading and essay composition using rhetorical styles common in college-level writing (narrative, example/illustration, compare/contrast, cause-and-effect, argument).

Subject:
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Full Course
Textbook
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Provider Set:
Candela Courseware
Date Added:
01/01/2014
English Composition I
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating
0.0 stars

This course promotes clear and effective communication by sharpening critical thinking and writing skills. The first unit is designed to change the way in which students think about writing--as a conversation rather than a solitary act. The second unit focuses on academic writing and explores the PWR-Writing or Power-Writing Method (PWR Pre-Write, Write, Revise). The remaining units will focus on the minutiae of good writing practices, from style to citation methodology. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: Demonstrate mastery of principles of grammar, usage, mechanics, and sentence structure. Identify the thesis in another individual's essay. Develop a thesis statement, structure it in an introductory paragraph, and support it with the body of the essay. Organize ideas logically within an essay, deploying adequate transitional devices to ensure coherence, flow, and focus. Differentiate between rhetorical strategies and write with an awareness of rhetorical technique and audience. Differentiate between tones and write with an awareness of how tone affects the audience's experience. Demonstrate critical and analytical thinking for reading and writing purposes. Quote, paraphrase, and document the work of others. Write sentences that vary in length and structure. (English 001)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Composition and Rhetoric
Language, Grammar and Vocabulary
Reading Foundation Skills
Material Type:
Assessment
Full Course
Lecture
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
11/10/2011
English Language Arts, Grade 12
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The 12th grade learning experience consists of 7 mostly month-long units aligned to the Common Core State Standards, with available course material for teachers and students easily accessible online. Over the course of the year there is a steady progression in text complexity levels, sophistication of writing tasks, speaking and listening activities, and increased opportunities for independent and collaborative work. Rubrics and student models accompany many writing assignments.Throughout the 12th grade year, in addition to the Common Read texts that the whole class reads together, students each select an Independent Reading book and engage with peers in group Book Talks. Language study is embedded in every 12th grade unit as students use annotation to closely review aspects of each text. Teacher resources provide additional materials to support each unit.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Pearson
Date Added:
10/06/2016
English Language Arts, Grade 12, Lincoln Speaks to Americans
Rating
0.0 stars

In this short unit, students will spend three lessons exploring some of Abraham Lincoln's speeches. Students will explore Lincoln's themes and consider how they address the issues of his time, and they'll analyze the literary and rhetorical devices he used to express his ideas.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Reading Informational Text
Speaking and Listening
Material Type:
Unit of Study
Provider:
Pearson
English Language Arts, Grade 12, Lincoln Speaks to Americans, Lincoln Speaks to Americans, Lincoln's Speech Addressing The Civil War & National Situation
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In this lesson, students will read two speeches given by Abraham Lincoln and consider how he shaped his words to have the most impact on his audience. They’ll consider how these speeches reflect the national situation just before the Civil War and put themselves into the mind-set of a New Jersey state senator.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Reading Literature
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
Pearson
Date Added:
09/21/2015
Exploring Audience and Purpose with a Single Issue
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Students explore the concepts of audience and purpose by focusing on an issue that divided Americans in 1925, the debate of evolution versus creationism raised by the Scopes Monkey Trial.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Composition and Rhetoric
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
ReadWriteThink
Provider Set:
ReadWriteThink
Date Added:
09/30/2013
Exploring Perspectives: A Concise Guide to Analysis
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The reason why Randall Fallows wrote Exploring Perspectives: A Concise Guide to Analysis is simple; to help give students a better understanding of how to discover, develop, and revise an analytical essay. Here is how his 5 chapter book goes about doing just that:The first two chapters focus on the nature of an analysis and what’s involved in writing an analytical essay. First, Randall shows that analysis consists of a balance of assertions (statements which present their viewpoints or launch an exploration of their concerns), examples (specific passages/scenes/events which inspire these views), explanations (statements that reveal how the examples support the assertions), and significance (statements which reveal the importance of their study to personal and/or cultural issues).After showing why each feature should be present throughout an essay, he reveals how to ”set the stage“ for producing one of their own. He first helps students to evaluate their own views on a subject and to examine how these views emerge from their own experiences, values and judgments. He, then, shows them how to research what others have said about the subject and provides suggestions for evaluating and incorporating this research into their own perspectives.Finally, Randall discusses the nature of writing, not as a linear procedure, but as a recursive process where the discovery and clarification of a concept occur simultaneously.The remaining three chapters reveal more specific advice on how to develop an analytical essay.Exploring Perspectives: A Concise Guide to Analysis by Randall Fallows is a great text to prepare any student to write analytical essays for the argument and persuasion courses.

Subject:
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Flat World Knowledge
Author:
Randall Fallows
Date Added:
01/01/2011
Guide to Grammar and Writing
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Capital Community College's (CT) Guide to Grammar and Writing is an exhaustive archive of exercises and instructions materials for all facets of the writing process, from developmental levels to college-level composition and research courses.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Lecture Notes
Lesson
Module
Author:
Capital Community College Foundation
Charles Darling
Date Added:
12/02/2018
A Guide to Rhetoric, Genre, and Success in First-Year Writing
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This book combines the Introduction to Writing in College by Melanie Gagich and ENG 102: Reading, Writing and Research by Emilie Zickel, which were both supported by Cleveland State University’s 2017 Textbook Affordability Small Grant.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Cleveland State University
Provider Set:
Michael Schwartz Library Pressbooks
Author:
Melanie Gagich
Date Added:
01/03/2020
A Guide to Technical Communications: Strategies & Applications
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CC BY-NC
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Welcome to the textbook for Engineering Technical Communications courses at The Ohio State University. Our aim in writing this textbook was to create a resource specifically focused on and applicable to the kinds of communication skills most beneficial to the students who take our courses. Therefore, this textbook focuses on developing both technical and professional communication skills and will help readers practice strategies for critically analyzing audiences and contexts, real-world applications of rhetorical principles, and skills for producing documents (reports, proposals, instructions), presentations, videos, and wide variety of other professional communications.

Subject:
Communication
Material Type:
Full Course
Textbook
Provider:
The Ohio State University
Provider Set:
Pressbooks
Author:
Leah Wahlin
Lynn Hall
Date Added:
01/01/2016
Guide to Writing
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CC BY-NC
Rating
4.0 stars

This writing style guide covers the fundamentals of English usage and writing. It includes sections on grammar and mechanics, editing, formatting, academic citation and research documentation, including the latest MLA and APA style guidelines. A useful supplement to any academic writing course.

This guide is primarily based on material from Lumen Learning’s English Composition I: Process-Based course and Joe Schall’s Style for Students, with supplemental videos by David Rheinstrom from Khan Academy’s Grammar.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Composition and Rhetoric
Language, Grammar and Vocabulary
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Lumen Learning
Date Added:
12/02/2018
Harlem Renaissance poetry and the art of parallel structure
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This resource intends to help students understand how parallelism is about more than mechanics and actually central to building thematic concepts.  

Subject:
Literature
Composition and Rhetoric
Language, Grammar and Vocabulary
Material Type:
Homework/Assignment
Author:
Bryan Harvey
Date Added:
12/21/2019
Il sonetto e l'endecasillabo
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Struttura e tradizioneMolto vario è lo schema ritmico del sonetto. Quello originario era composto da rime alterne ABAB ABAB sia nelle quartine che terzine CDC DCD, oppure con tre rime ripetute CDE CDE, o ancora con struttura ABAB ABAB CDC ECE.Quello in vigore nel Dolce stil novo introduceva nelle quartine la rima incrociata: ABBA/ABBA, forma che in seguito ebbe la prevalenza. Il sonetto è pertanto un genere poetico che ha capacità poliedriche e risponde a funzioni diverse.Esempio di sonetto con schema: ABBA - ABBA | CDE - EDC:« Tanto gentile e tanto onesta parela donna mia quand'ella altrui saluta,ch'ogne lingua deven tremando muta,e li occhi non l'ardiscan di guardare.Ella si va, sentendosi laudare,benignamente d'umiltà vestuta;e par che sia una cosa venutada cielo in terra a miracol mostrare.Mostrasi sì piacente a chi la mira,che dà per li occhi una dolcezza al core,che 'ntender no la può chi non la prova:e par che de la sua labbia si movauno spirito soave pien d'amore,che va dicendo a l'anima: Sospira. »(Dante Alighieri)Il sonetto Non è certamente impresa facile, allo stato attuale degli studî, delineare una storia della metrica italiana, poiché all'insufficienza delle ricerche particolari s'aggiunge il carattere puramente descrittivo a cui s'ispira la maggior parte di esse. Fatta eccezione per la poesia dei primi secoli, per la quale il filologo - in virtù della sua preparazione di medievalista e di comparatista - ha potuto investire o additare alcuni dei problemi più importanti della tecnica poetica, soprattutto per quanto riguarda l'origine dei versi, della struttura strofica, delle forme chiuse, risulta in generale che la critica ha trascurato lo studio della metrica da un punto di vista adeguatamente storico, limitandosi soltanto a istituire astratti paradigmi d'indole normativa. Non si può dire che si sia fatto un congruo progresso nel metodo di ricerca rispetto al primo grande tentativo del De vulgari eloquentia dantesco, che per la prima volta nel dominio romanzo riportava l'evoluzione metrica entro al concreto dominio della storia letteraria. Ma alcune delle ragioni che hanno favorito questo ritardo della critica intorno alla tecnica del verso e possono giustificare, almeno in parte, il difetto d'interesse verso siffatti problemi, vanno ricercate nella particolare tradizione della metrica italiana, che conserva, almeno apparentemente, una continuità uniforme nei suoi tipi principali. L'endecasillabo, p. es., che è il verso originario e classico della poesia italiana, ha una storia più omogenea e una portata più estesa di qualsiasi verso romanzo, anche dell'alessandrino francese e dell'ottonario spagnolo. Esso, infatti, non offre, almeno rispetto al quadro ritmico, nessuna sostanziale differenza fra un'epoca letteraria e l'altra e la sua evoluzione ed estensione riguarda, se mai, lo schema strofico in cui si viene a disporre. A determinare questa più rigorosa osservanza del tipo metrico hanno operato le particolari condizioni conservative della lingua letteraria e la maggiore continuità della tradizione poetica, poiché in Italia l'una e l'altra, pur avendo un ricco e operoso svolgimento, non hanno tuttavia subito radicali trasformazioni né mai hanno bruscamente interrotto i legami con il più vicino passato. Mentre il periodo umanistico sembra creare in Francia, e non in Francia soltanto, un profondo distacco dalla cultura, dalla lingua e dalla versificazione dell'epoca medievale, in Italia esso si delinea come maturazione del Trecento, cosicché i tipi ritmici e le forme metriche di cui si riveste il primo fiore della lirica siculo-toscana si continuano con un più squisito perfezionamento nella poesia del Petrarca e si stilizzano più rigidamente con il petrarchismo del Cinquecento; lo stesso Romanticismo, d'altra parte, non portò in Italia, dove l'educazione e il temperamento classici erano profondamente radicati, quella rivoluzione della tecnica poetica e perciò dello strumento metrico che invece si effettuava altrove, anche in paesi di cultura romanza. L'endecasillabo e il sonetto, per esempio, che rappresentano rispettivamente l'unità ritmica e la forma chiusa più schiettamente italiane, non conoscono infedeltà né oblii, da Guittone d'Arezzo al Carducci e all'ultimo D'Annunzio. Nel Duecento, che possiamo considerare come il periodo genetico della versificazione italiana, essa si viene costituendo entro un tipo culturale assai maturo e ricco di esperienze, che aveva già elaborato i proprî schemi e possedeva modelli già conchiusi nelle letterature vicine, la trovatorica-provenzale soprattutto, così che ignorò quasi del tutto quella lenta, oscura e laboriosa epoca di poesia popolare-giullaresca che in altri paesi (Francia e Castiglia) aveva veramente creato la metrica romanza dall'incerta eredità dei "ritmi" bassolatini. L'endecasillabo e il settenario, la canzone, il sonetto, il serventese e la terza rima appartengono a una tradizione che ha ormai superato lo stadio preparatorio; per quanto in Italia si rivelino in parte di nuova formazione e in parte di rinnovato adattamento, essi si presentano subito con una struttura isosillabica e con un quadro ritmico e strofico pienamente regolare e normativo. L'endecasillabo di Dante e più risolutamente quello del Petrarca (che normalizza l'accento sulla sesta a preferenza degli altri, isola la rima, tende a conferire al verso singolo un'unità compiuta in corrispondenza alla frase logica) fissano sostanzialmente gli elementi costitutivi della versificazione italiana in rapporto al genio della lingua.Cosicché è naturale che il verso umanistico non si differenzî gran che dal tipo precedente; succede o prevale, tutt'al più, una forma strofica su un'altra; se la terzina dantesca che pareva perpetuarsi come strumento di poesia narrativa (non se ne sottrasse lo stesso Petrarca che sembrava riluttante alla poesia della Divina Commedia), cade in disuso assieme al contenuto ideale ch'essa traduceva screditata dagli sterili epigoni, tanto che c'è, in pieno Quattrocento, chi la volge a soggetti parodistici e caricaturali (e sopravvive unicamente come metro satirico, né la Basvilliana e la Mascheroniana del Monti possono infonderle nuova vita; se mai ebbe una sporadica ripresa come metro elegiaco col Foscolo, col Leopardi, col Carducci), tuttavia l'endecasillabo continua a mantenersi, anche nel Quattrocento, come verso-base della lirica, e anzi, assieme all'ottava rima, sale ai fastigi della più alta espressione del Rinascimento. Qui è più palese il processo ascensionale dall'ambiente popolare alla poesia d'arte, dai cantari al poema del Pulci, del Boiardo, dell'Ariosto. Anzi il Quattrocento, specie quello toscano e più propriamente fiorentino, rappresenta, rispetto al Trecento, una più larga assimilazione dei metri popolari con un tipo di cultura più agile e più permeabile: è il secolo in cui spesseggiano la ballata, la lauda, il canto carnascialesco, la frottola, il madrigale, lo strambotto, il rispetto, ecc. E tuttavia l'endecasillabo rimane lo schema fondamentale del ritmo italiano; trapassa a una forma culturale diversa, ma il quadro interno resta quasi immutato: ed è sintomatico il fatto che durante le numerose e aspre polemiche linguistiche del Cinquecento che traducevano la crisi della lingua letteraria, non sia mai sorta una vera e propria questione metrica. Anzi nell'età del Bembo si ha una maggiore stilizzazione del verso petrarchesco, che finisce col determinare - e non soltanto nel campo della pura lirica - una volontà di rinnovamento in seno alla versificazione.Ma i tentativi di riforma promossi dal Trissino, dall'Alamanni, da Bernardo Tasso, da Claudio Tolomei (sono del 1539 le sue Regole della nuova poesia toscana), se rinsanguarono la lirica di nuove forme strofiche sulla falsa traccia dell'antico (ode pindarica, ode oraziana, e più tardi la canzone libera, ecc.; già l'Ariosto nelle sue commedie aveva tentato di rendere il trimetro giambico dei comici latini con l'uscita sdrucciola dell'endecasillabo), rappresentano comunque un fallimento e documentano ancora una volta il carattere insostituibile dei metri tradizionali. Rimase acquisita l'introduzione dell'endecasillabo sciolto, che, sebbene presentato in opere di scarso valore estetico (per la prima volta dal Trissino nell'Italia liberata dai Goti e nellaSofonisba: né può considerarsi un precedente storico il verso del dugentesco Mare amoroso), era destinato a rinnovare la vitalità del grande verso italiano, divenendo strumento agile e duttile nel riprodurre il verso eroico dell'antichità o il metro narrativo di altre letterature, nel rendere l'andatura prosastica e descrittiva del poema didascalico o l'agitata animazione della tragedia, fino a dare il tono alla nuova poesia moderna, ad opera del Parini, dell'Alfieri, del Foscolo, del Leopardi, del Carducci, ecc.Ma, intanto, nella lirica del Seicento e di più nell'Arcadia, il verso sembra disarticolarsi per il prevalere di movimenti più strettamente musicali e canori, che operano in seno alla versificazione una vera e propria dislocazione ritmica. Col Marino e i marinisti si trasmette ancora l'endecasillabo, soprattutto nella forma del sonetto e dell'ottava, ché, nonostante la pretesa originalità del secolo, dietro alla proclamata novità del concettismo, si palesa un tardo e degenere petrarchismo, che porta con sé i consueti schemi metrici. Ma tanto il verso, quanto la forma strofica - anche se l'uno si distende su undici sillabe e l'altra ha l'ampiezza del sonetto, della terzina e perfino dell'ottava - tendono a frangersi in brevi ritmi, piuttosto da canzonetta; sono prossimi nella loro sostanza poetica ai metri più corti, specie al settenario, che in quest'epoca si fa sempre più invadente e predominante, con un andamento cantabile. Di questo procedimento che spezza la struttura del verso in brevi emistichî di ritmo eguale, facile e orecchiabile, divenne maestra l'Arcadia: la canzonetta, l'anacreontica, l'odicina, le costruzioni polimetriche a tempo di ballabile, la canzone libera affine al recitativo del dramma pastorale, trovarono il loro estremo sviluppo nel Sei e Settecento pastorali e melodrammatici.Il rinnovamento poetico della seconda metà del Settecento doveva effettuarsi attraverso l'endecasillabo, col ripristino del suo ritmo ampio, composto, profondamente plastico, libero perfino dal limite della rima; e in endecasillabi sono le opere più significative: le tragedie dell'Alfieri, il Giorno del Parini, i Sepolcri del Foscolo, tanta parte della libera poesia del Leopardi, la cui metrica è forse - al pari della sua arte - la più nuova e originale. Con lui la versificazione si fa più strettamente individuale e più squisitamente "moderna", e i grandi poeti che gli succedettero - Carducci, Pascoli, D'Annunzio - si sono creati a volta a volta una loro tecnica metrica, non sempre riducibile a schemi più o meno tradizionali.Certo il Carducci ebbe il merito grande d'interessare più largamente alle questioni metriche, anche se la sua versificazione "barbara" (v. appresso) non riuscì nel suo complesso a far dimenticare i metri della tradizione, che finirono sempre col prevalere; ma senza di lui e senza la sensibilità per il puro ritmo da lui suscitata, forse il Pascoli non avrebbe potuto creare con piena e raffinata coscienza quella sua metrica personalissima, veramente innovatrice, né sarebbero state possibili le modernissime aspirazioni a spiritualizzare la parola in varietà di valori fonici, cioè di ritmi e di metri. Rispetto al Pascoli, il D'Annunzio costituisce anzi una remora, adagiandosi nelle vecchie forme della lirica, con un gusto tra l'archeologico e il preziosista. In questo periodo, del resto, anche in corrispondenza al movimento simbolista della Francia, la poesia entrava nella sua più acuta crisi, ché, abbandonata la disciplina del verso tradizionale, non riusciva a sostituire nuovi tipi, che non fossero già consumati o non portassero la nostalgia del verso classico. Il prevalere della letteratura in prosa, la disarticolazione delle forme metriche nella ricerca del "verso libero", il disinteresse teorico della critica idealistica verso la poesia "tipografica", hanno disintegrato le forme e i valori della pura versificazione.Bibl.: F. D'Ovidio, Versificazione italiana e arte poetica medievale, Milano 1910; id., Versificazione romanza, Napoli 1932. Ormai invecchiati i lavori di F. Zambaldi, Il ritmo dei versi italiani, Torino 1874, e di G. Fraccaroli, D'una teoria razionale di metrica italiana, Torino 1887. Buono ancora come manuale scolastico descrittivo il vol. di P. E. Guarnerio, Manuale di versificazione italiana, Milano 1893; astratto e meccanico il saggio di A. Levi, Della versificazione italiana, in Archivum Romanicum, XIV (1930), pp. 449-526. Forse le osservazioni migliori vanno ricercate in margine alla critica d'arte, per cui si rimanda alla bibl. dei singoli poeti. Cfr. inoltre, qui appresso, la bibl. relativa alla metrica barbara.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Author:
Vincenzo Talarico
Date Added:
02/15/2017
Let's Get Writing!
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The layout of our book implies there is a beginning, middle, and end to a writing course, but because writing is both an art and a skill, people will find their own processes for learning, improving, and using these skills. Writing processes differ because we are each looking for a workable schemata that fits our way of thinking. Try out a variety of writing processes and strategies, and find what works for you. If you are not uncomfortable on this journey, you simply are not stretching yet.

A quick glance through the book will show you that it deftly covers the basics, which are always important to review as you get ready to build onto your scaffolding. Reminders of terminology that form the foundation of a discipline—as well as explanations, descriptions, and examples of their use in a basic education—are in chapters such as “Critical Reading,” “Writing Basics: What Makes a Good Sentence,” “The Writing Process,” “Punctuation,” and “Working with Words.” These are, of course, fundamentals that you have worked with throughout your education, learning in each course skills and habits that elevate your reading, writing, and thinking abilities. This college writing course will ensure that you take another step up to college and professional writing.

This text is different in its emphasis on research skills and research writing. The form you will learn, the building blocks of that form, the formality, and the sacrosanct crediting of sources is explained here from English professors and our instructional librarian at the college. Leaning on questions that lead to searches for answers that lead to arguments that present your understanding, the chapters “Critical Reading,” “Rhetorical Modes,” and “Argument” will fill out your growing appreciation of and comfort with the research form in everyday life. From the discussion of source types to guidance through the research process to the models of essay deconstruction, you will find that the expectations and language of this text begin with the college-level student in mind.

Working through this text will elevate you into the next stage of writing for a 21st century student and professional.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Elizabeth Browning
Jenifer Kurtz
Katelyn Burton
Kathy Boylan
Kirsten Devries
Date Added:
02/13/2020
Listening, Persuasion, and Rhetoric with TED Talks
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This English Language Arts lesson plan for 11th graders focuses on listening skills, persuasion, and rhetoric connected to TED talk videos. It addresses the following NE state standards: NE.LA 12.4.1.A; NE.LA 12.4.2.B; NE.LA 12.3.3.C; NE.LA 12.2.1.BThe lesson will take about 40-50 minutes.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Author:
Katie Schneider
Date Added:
07/24/2020
Logos, Ethos, And Pathos
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This is a BlendSpace lesson on the persuasive appeals - ethos, logos, and pathos. It involves note-taking, an understanding check quiz, and an application assignment in which students analyze a commercial or print ad for its use of ethos, logos, and pathos.

Subject:
Literature
Composition and Rhetoric
Language, Grammar and Vocabulary
Reading Informational Text
Speaking and Listening
Cultural Geography
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Diagram/Illustration
Homework/Assignment
Interactive
Lesson
Author:
Wendy Arch
Date Added:
10/04/2019
Network Sense: Methods for Visualizing a Discipline
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Derek Mueller advocates for a methodology to visualize and understand disciplinarity through what he calls network sense. Mueller’s methodology combines distant reading with thin description in a way that allows academics to avoid the obsessive depth of thick description. Distant reading and thin description complement networks of association in a way that affords inquiry and discovery for newcomers and seasoned scholars alike. Using word clouds, citation frequency graphs, and maps of scholarly activity as visual models, he presents ways we can visualize the field of rhetoric and composition/writing studies and its so-called turns, or widespread attention events, such as the global turn, visual turn, multimodal turn, and so on. This book is published by the WAC Clearinghouse/Colorado State University Open Press #writing book series and co-presented by the Digital Publishing Institute at WVU Libraries.

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
West Virginia University
Provider Set:
Open Access Textbooks
Author:
Derek Mueller
Date Added:
09/27/2018