This course introduces students to the principles, laws, and policies that influence the use of animal and alternative, non-animal-based (humane sciences) research techniques in biomedical research.
I designed the course for graduate students who use statistics in their research, plan to use statistics, or need to interpret statistical analyses performed by others. The primary audience are graduate students in the environmental sciences, but the course should benefit just about anyone who is in graduate school in the natural sciences. The course is not designed for those who want a simple overview of statistics; well learn by analyzing real data. This course or equivalent is required for UMB Biology and EEOS Ph.D. students. It is a recommended course for several of the intercampus graduate school of marine science program options.
By the end of this section, you will be able to:Describe the different research methods used by psychologistsDiscuss the strengths and weaknesses of case studies, naturalistic observation, surveys, and archival research
After reading this module, you will be able to:Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of archivall research and case studiesDescribe longitudinal, cross-sectional, and sequential research designs
After reading this module, you will be able to:Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of archivall research and case studiesDescribe longitudinal, cross-sectional, and sequential research designs
This unit covers basic research methods in an easily accessible way, and includes research tips and pros and cons for each method. It also takes learners through a step-by-step approach to planning research.
Choosing & Using Sources presents a process for academic research and writing, from formulating your research question to selecting good information and using it effectively in your research assignments. Additional chapters cover understanding types of sources, searching for information, and avoiding plagiarism. Each chapter includes self-quizzes and activities to reinforce core concepts and help you apply them. There are also appendices for quick reference on search tools, copyright basics, and fair use.
Drug research has contributed more to the progress of medicine during the past century than any other scientific factor. With lecture snippets of Gerhard Domagk, Gertrude Elion and Brian Kobilka this Mini Lectures introduces to the fundamental research methods of drug targeting.
The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research. The list can be used in research methods education, and as a checklist to assess the quality of preregistrations and to determine the potential for bias due to (arbitrary) choices in unregistered studies.
In animal experiments, animals, husbandry and test procedures are traditionally standardized to maximize test sensitivity and minimize animal use, assuming that this will also guarantee reproducibility. However, by reducing within-experiment variation, standardization may limit inference to the specific experimental conditions. Indeed, we have recently shown in mice that standardization may generate spurious results in behavioral tests, accounting for poor reproducibility, and that this can be avoided by population heterogenization through systematic variation of experimental conditions. Here, we examined whether a simple form of heterogenization effectively improves reproducibility of test results in a multi-laboratory situation. Each of six laboratories independently ordered 64 female mice of two inbred strains (C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2NCrl) and examined them for strain differences in five commonly used behavioral tests under two different experimental designs. In the standardized design, experimental conditions were standardized as much as possible in each laboratory, while they were systematically varied with respect to the animals' test age and cage enrichment in the heterogenized design. Although heterogenization tended to improve reproducibility by increasing within-experiment variation relative to between-experiment variation, the effect was too weak to account for the large variation between laboratories. However, our findings confirm the potential of systematic heterogenization for improving reproducibility of animal experiments and highlight the need for effective and practicable heterogenization strategies.
- Health, Medicine and Nursing
- Material Type:
- PLOS ONE
- Benjamin Zipser
- Berry Spruijt
- Britta Schindler
- Chadi Touma
- Christiane Brandwein
- David P. Wolfer
- Hanno Würbel
- Johanneke van der Harst
- Joseph P. Garner
- Lars Lewejohann
- Niek van Stipdonk
- Norbert Sachser
- Peter Gass
- Sabine Chourbaji
- S. Helene Richter
- Vootele Võikar
- Date Added:
This exercise guides students through reading and outlining an empirical journal article. It reviews the basic structure of empirical journal articles and prompts students to take detailed notes of each article as they read.
This exercise guides students through how to outline a non-empirical (theoretical, philosophical, practical) journal article. Students are prompted to take detailed notes as they read within a structured format.
This course presents the overarching framework, principles, and core responsibilities of public health research and practice from a multidisciplinary perspective. The course also provides the necessary foundation for further studies toward advanced cross-cutting approaches essential for public health practice.
This short guidebook provides information about selecting a research topic and research questions, searching for literature, reading and understanding scholarly writing, and writing a literature review to synthesize what is known and what remains to be learned about a social problem. For students who appreciate the availability of resources on the internet, it also provides links to additional materials. It can be used with its companion textbook, Foundations of Social Work Research by Rebecca L. Mauldin and Matthew DeCarlo, or as a stand-alone guide.
Limiting the debilitating consequences of ageing is a major medical challenge of our time. Robust pharmacological interventions that promote healthy ageing across diverse genetic backgrounds may engage conserved longevity pathways. Here we report results from the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program in assessing longevity variation across 22 Caenorhabditis strains spanning 3 species, using multiple replicates collected across three independent laboratories. Reproducibility between test sites is high, whereas individual trial reproducibility is relatively low. Of ten pro-longevity chemicals tested, six significantly extend lifespan in at least one strain. Three reported dietary restriction mimetics are mainly effective across C. elegans strains, indicating species and strain-specific responses. In contrast, the amyloid dye ThioflavinT is both potent and robust across the strains. Our results highlight promising pharmacological leads and demonstrate the importance of assessing lifespans of discrete cohorts across repeat studies to capture biological variation in the search for reproducible ageing interventions.
- Material Type:
- Nature Communications
- Anna B. Crist
- Anna C. Foulger
- Anna L. Coleman-Hulbert
- Brian Onken
- Carolina Ibanez-Ventoso
- Christina Chang
- Christine A. Sedore
- Daniel Edgar
- Dipa Bhaumik
- Elizabeth A. Chao
- Erik Johnson
- Esteban Chen
- Girish Harinath
- Gordon J. Lithgow
- Jailynn Harke
- Jason L Kish
- Jian Xue
- John H. Willis
- June Hope
- Kathleen J. Dumas
- Manish Chamoli
- Mark Lucanic
- Mary Anne Royal
- Max Guo
- Michael P. Presley
- Michelle K. Chen
- Monica Driscoll
- Patrick C. Phillips
- Shaunak Kamat
- Shobhna Patel
- Suzanne Angeli
- Suzhen Guo
- Theo Garrett
- W. Todd Plummer
- Date Added:
The last ten years have witnessed increasing awareness of questionable research practices (QRPs) in the life sciences, including p-hacking, HARKing, lack of replication, publication bias, low statistical power and lack of data sharing (see Figure 1). Concerns about such behaviours have been raised repeatedly for over half a century but the incentive structure of academia has not changed to address them. Despite the complex motivations that drive academia, many QRPs stem from the simple fact that the incentives which offer success to individual scientists conflict with what is best for science. On the one hand are a set of gold standards that centuries of the scientific method have proven to be crucial for discovery: rigour, reproducibility, and transparency. On the other hand are a set of opposing principles born out of the academic career model: the drive to produce novel and striking results, the importance of confirming prior expectations, and the need to protect research interests from competitors. Within a culture that pressures scientists to produce rather than discover, the outcome is a biased and impoverished science in which most published results are either unconfirmed genuine discoveries or unchallenged fallacies. This observation implies no moral judgement of scientists, who are as much victims of this system as they are perpetrators.
This unit introduces you to analysing academic writing and, in particular, the way an article might be structured to clearly explain an investigation to other researchers. It explores observation of children and young people using qualitative observation approaches in small-scale studies.
Introduction to Political Science Research Methods, 1st edition, is an Open Education Resource Textbook that surveys the research methods employed in political science. The textbook includes chapters that cover: history and development of the empirical study of politics; the scientific method; theories, hypotheses, variables, and units; conceptualization, operationalization and measurement of political concepts; elements of research design including the logic of sampling; qualitative and quantitative research methods and means of analysis; and research ethics.
- Josh Franco, Cuyamaca College
- Charlotte Lee, Berkeley City College
- Kau Vue, Fresno City College
- Dino Bozonelos, Victor Valley College
- Masa Omae, San Diego City College
- Steven Cauchon, Imperial Valley College
PDF Version ISBN: 978-1-7351980-0-2
This course introduces students to the scientific study of the mind and behavior and to the applications of psychological theory to life. Topics include: research methods; biopsychology; lifespan development; memory; learning; social psychology; personality; and psychological health and disorders. This course will establish a foundation for subsequent study in psychology. Resources include: Video, Articles, and Class Activities.
This course is designed to introduce you to a range of basic sociological principles so that you can develop your own sociological imagination. You will learn about the origins of sociology as a discipline and be introduced to major sociological theories and methods of research. You will also explore such topics as sex and gender, deviance, and racism.
This course Introduces students to ethics concepts as they apply to questions and challenges in conducting human subject research. The aim is to increase students' knowledge and skills to recognize and consider ethical issues that arise in the conduct of human subject research. The course was designed for clinical investigators in India who will likely collaborate with US investigators; it therefore includes a discussion of US and Indian regulatory requirements relevant to the conduct of collaborative research.
Using source evaluation as the theme, discussed different article types such as government reports, case studies, literature reviews, peer-reviewed scholarly articles, law reviews, self-published articles, and the value of each. Class included a hands-on activity with worksheet.
Numerous biases are believed to affect the scientific literature, but their actual prevalence across disciplines is unknown. To gain a comprehensive picture of the potential imprint of bias in science, we probed for the most commonly postulated bias-related patterns and risk factors, in a large random sample of meta-analyses taken from all disciplines. The magnitude of these biases varied widely across fields and was overall relatively small. However, we consistently observed a significant risk of small, early, and highly cited studies to overestimate effects and of studies not published in peer-reviewed journals to underestimate them. We also found at least partial confirmation of previous evidence suggesting that US studies and early studies might report more extreme effects, although these effects were smaller and more heterogeneously distributed across meta-analyses and disciplines. Authors publishing at high rates and receiving many citations were, overall, not at greater risk of bias. However, effect sizes were likely to be overestimated by early-career researchers, those working in small or long-distance collaborations, and those responsible for scientific misconduct, supporting hypotheses that connect bias to situational factors, lack of mutual control, and individual integrity. Some of these patterns and risk factors might have modestly increased in intensity over time, particularly in the social sciences. Our findings suggest that, besides one being routinely cautious that published small, highly-cited, and earlier studies may yield inflated results, the feasibility and costs of interventions to attenuate biases in the literature might need to be discussed on a discipline-specific and topic-specific basis.
Topic 2: Psychological ResearchTextbook readings: pp. 35-36; pp. 42-48; pp. 52-56; pp. 60-63.Watch: Understanding Research, Discovering Psychology Series - This program examines how we know what we know. You'll explore the scientific method, the distinction between fact and theory, and the different ways in which data are collected and applied, both in labs and in real-world settings.[©2001 WGBH Educational Foundation All Rights Reserved]Learning objectives:1. Describe the purpose of research.Describe these common types of research “methods” in psychology: case study, naturalistic observation, surveys, correlational studies; and experimental studies.Identify and define important terms related to the “experimental” method, especially hypothesis, random assignment, sample, population, independent variable, dependent variable, experimental group and control group.Describe ethical principles that should be applied when conducting research.
Microbes rule the reef. They determine both coral reef health and decline. Exploration of their diverse roles in these ecosystems has become possible only recently with the development of new research methods, such as metagenomics. Join San Diego State microbial ecologist Forest Rohwer as he builds his case for the role of microbes in the DDAMnation of coral reefs. His research expeditions to the remote Line Islands, including trips with Scripps scientists, have provided new insights into the mechanisms by which human activities can influence reef health; how we convert the essential microbial partners of a healthy coral reef ecosystem into coral killers. (28 minutes)
This site helps students see how plants and animals interact to accomplish pollination. Students (Grades 3-8) identify plant and animal parts involved in pollination, connections between pollination and food production, relationships between pollinators and the plants they pollinate, and ways flowers have adapted to encourage pollination.
Psychology is designed to meet scope and sequence requirements for the single-semester introduction to psychology course. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of core concepts, grounded in both classic studies and current and emerging research. The text also includes coverage of the DSM-5 in examinations of psychological disorders. Psychology incorporates discussions that reflect the diversity within the discipline, as well as the diversity of cultures and communities across the globe.Senior Contributing AuthorsRose M. Spielman, Formerly of Quinnipiac UniversityContributing AuthorsKathryn Dumper, Bainbridge State CollegeWilliam Jenkins, Mercer UniversityArlene Lacombe, Saint Joseph's UniversityMarilyn Lovett, Livingstone CollegeMarion Perlmutter, University of Michigan
By the end of this section, you will be able to:Describe the different research methods used by psychologistsDiscuss the strengths and weaknesses of case studies, naturalistic observation, surveys, and archival researchCompare longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches to research
This chapter covers:Why is Research Important?Approaches to ResearchAnalyzing FindingsEthicsFor more information, visit OpenStax College.
The first chapter provides an overview of the textbook and reviews the history of psychology and its methodology. Psychology is described as a science studying how hereditary (nature) and experiential (nurture) variables interact to influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals. The remainder of the text will be organized in sections entitled “Mostly Nature” (Biological Psychology; Sensation & Perception; Motivation & Emotion), “Mostly Nurture” (Direct Learning; Indirect Learning (i.e., observational learning and language); Cognition), and “Nature/Nurture” (Human Development; Personality; Social Psychology; Maladaptive Behavior; Professional Psychology and Human Potential).
Provides training for students with an interest in clinical and translational research in the health care setting. Cultivates skills for study design, research literature review, ethics, responsible conduct of research, and cultural competence while emphasizing professionalism and personal responsibility.
This course prrovides direct opportunities for Public Health majors to observe and participate in public health activities and/or research; and to cultivate skills for verbal and written communication of contemporary public health topics for an integrative culminating experience.
Quantitative Research Methods for Political Science, Public Policy and Public Administration for Undergraduates: 1st Edition With Applications in Excel is an adaption of Quantitative Research Methods for Political Science, Public Policy and Public Administration (With Applications in R). The focus of this book is on using quantitative research methods to test hypotheses and build theory in political science, public policy and public administration. This new version is designed specifically for undergraduate courses. It omits large portions of the original text that focused on calculus and linear algebra, expands and reorganizes the content on the software system by shifting to Excel and includes guided study questions at the end of each chapter.
Quantitative Research Methods for Political Science, Public Policy and Public Administration for Undergraduates: 1st Edition With Applications in R is an adaption of Quantitative Research Methods for Political Science, Public Policy and Public Administration (With Applications in R). The focus of this book is on using quantitative research methods to test hypotheses and build theory in political science, public policy and public administration. This new version of the text omits large portions of the original text that focused on calculus and linear algebra, expands and reorganizes the content on the software system R and includes guided study questions at the end of each chapter.
Discussions of how to improve research quality are predominant in a number of fields, including education. But how prevalent are the use of problematic practices and the improved practices meant to counter them? This baseline information will be a critical data source as education researchers seek to improve our research practices. In this preregistered study, we replicated and extended previous studies from other fields by asking education researchers about 10 questionable research practices and 5 open research practices. We asked them to estimate the prevalence of the practices in the field, self-report their own use of such practices, and estimate the appropriateness of these behaviors in education research. We made predictions under four umbrella categories: comparison to psychology, geographic location, career stage, and quantitative orientation. Broadly, our results suggest that both questionable and open research practices are part of the typical research practices of many educational researchers. Preregistration, code, and data can be found at https://osf.io/83mwk/.
A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes.