Unlike his predecessor, Richard Nixon longed to be known for his expertise in foreign policy. Although occupied with the Vietnam War, Nixon also initiated several new trends in American diplomatic relations. Nixon contended that the communist world consisted of two rival powers the Soviet Union and China. Given the long history of animosity between those two nations, Nixon and his adviser Henry Kissinger, decided to exploit that rivalry to win advantages for the United States. That policy became known as triangular diplomacy.
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Welcome to the mystery and wonder that is ancient China. In the subsequent readings, you will learn that Chinese culture developed differently from any other ancient civilization. Chinese history is a lesson in paradoxes. Their past is full of natural disasters and wars; yet some of the most beautiful art, literature, and architecture have been created and preserved through the 13 dynastic periods, spanning 4,000 years into the 20th century. These trends are reflected by three of the most influential dynasties of China: the Shang, Han, and Tang.
From the misty veil of prehistory emerged the myths of ancient China. Heroes turned to gods, and men and beasts performed miraculous feats. Their myths explain the discoveries of the tools and practices used by the Chinese to the present-day.
Recorded history in China begins with the Shang dynasty. Scholars today argue about when the dynasty began, with opinions ranging from the mid-18th to the mid-16th century B.C.E. Regardless of the dates, one event more than any other signaled the advent of the Shang dynasty the Bronze Age.
With only a short interruption by the reformer Wang Mang from 9-24 C.E., the Han dynasty lasted for well over 400 years. But by the beginning of the 3rd century C.E., the corruption in government that signaled the decline of nearly every Chinese dynasty had taken its toll. This corruption combined with political struggles and an increasing population, making a unified China impossible.
The rise of the Tang dynasty in China mirrored the rise of the Han over 800 years earlier. Like the Han dynasty before them, the Tang dynasty was created after the fall of a ruthless leadership. And like the Han before them, the Tang dynasty had their own powerful leader, Emperor Tai-tsung.
All art is political in the sense that all art takes place in the public arena and engages with an already existing ideology. Chinese artist, Ai Weiwei, offers an important contemporary example. The news that Chinese artist Ai Weiwei has been detained by authorities has prompted significant concern. Ai Weiwei has ben arrested by the Chinese authorities.
This study was carried out by Ducker Worldwide and funded by The Aluminum Association to evaluate the aluminum content in 2012 model year vehicles and the projected aluminum content growth through 2025. To gather data and form projections, Ducker surveyed original equipment manufactures (OEMs) and The Aluminum Association to create a metallic materials database with 32,000 cells per light vehicle. Using their database and other information from OEMs, Ducker concluded in the 2012 model year the average weight of aluminum on light vehicles will be approximately 348lbs, 30% of hoods will be aluminum, and 50% of cast aluminum wheels will be sourced from China. To meet corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards in 2025 Ducker speculates vehicle aluminum content will grow by 80% (671lbs avg. truck and 451lbs avg. for cars), milled aluminum components will increase, 50% of hoods will be aluminum, and manifolds will be made from magnesium rather than aluminum. Based on this study's conclusions, it's clear that aluminum content in vehicles will continue to grow to meet CAFE standards by 2025. For more info on Ducker Worldwide, visit http://www.ducker.com/. Ducker has also performed studies for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).
In this activity, students will practice answer the phone and having a conversation in Chinese, using mannerisms common in Chinese. They will practice trying to make plans with someone over the phone, explaining their schedule, and politely accepting or declining an invitation.
In this activity, students will practice answer the phone and having a conversation in a Chinese style. They will practice trying to make plans with someone over the phone, explaining their schedule, and politely accepting or declining an invitation.
An army of buried warriors, lion dances, dancing shadows and a tornado of fire... experience the vibrant diversity of the arts across China.
This course serves as an introduction to the major pre-Modern artistic traditions of India, China, and Japan. It first examines Indian Art, focusing on Buddhist, Hindu, and Islamic art and architecture. Then, the student will cover the arts of China, detailing the interaction between art, politics, and culture throughout Chinese dynastic history. Lastly, the course discusses Japanese Art, exploring the effects that various sub-traditions and sub-cultures had on the art of Japan. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: identify major pre-modern Indian, Chinese, and Japanese works of art and architecture; identify the major art historical time periods in India, China, and Japan and the important artistic developments that occurred during each of them; recognize how art and architecture can be used to understand the politics, history, and culture of India, China, and Japan; look at, analyze, and compare and contrast different types of Asian art. (Art History 305)
This course will introduce the student to the international relations of the Asia-Pacific region. Globalization, economic ties, national security issues, and politico-military alliances with the U.S. make an understanding of this region important to any political science student or participant in American government. This course will examine the differences between Western political thought and the general philosophical outlooks of the Asian population, which have been molded by societal forces for thousands of years. It will also address politics in Asia by examining pre-colonial systems of government, Western imperialism, national liberation movements, and proxy wars fought by the Superpowers in the Cold War. This course is important because the Asia-Pacific has given rise to several of the U.S.'s major security concerns: financial support of the U.S. economy by China and Japan through the purchase of U.S. government debt securities, conflict with China over Taiwan, North Korea's nuclear weapons program, separatist movements in several of the smaller Pacific Rim nations, and the growth and support of transnational terrorism within the region. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain how religion and culture impact government and political systems in Eastern Asia; discuss philosophies of government in Eastern Asia from ancient times to the present; identify the ways in which Western imperialism has impacted Eastern Asia; demonstrate an understanding of systems of governance currently in existence in Eastern Asia; analyze contemporary political and security issues in Eastern Asia that may impact U.S. national interests; assess the relationship that exists between economic development, systems of governance, and political stability of a Third World nation. (Political Science 322)
Resources are organized by world history time period and will be useful for students and educators at all levels.
In this activity, students will practice asking someone they meet where they are from and their nationality. Students will start by asking each other what country they are from, and then each student will be given a country card at random. Students will then practice asking and answering questions about various nationalities.
In this video from Wide Angle, Ambassador Charlene Barshefsky, former U.S. Trade Representative in the Clinton Administration, discusses her views on economic change in China.
This art history video discussion examines the Buddha of Medicine Bhaishajyaguru (Yaoshi fo), c. 1319, Yuan dynasty, water-based pigments on clay mixed with straw, 24 feet, 8 inches x 49 feet 7 inches / 751.8 cm x 1511.3 cm (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).
This course serves as an introduction to the Buddhist artistic traditions of South, Southeast, and East Asia, as well as the Himalayas. It starts with the core tenets of Buddhism, Buddhist iconography, and early Buddhist art and architecture in India, then progresses to Southeast Asia. The course then focuses on Vajrayana Buddhism and its artistic traditions in the Himalayas, then examines Mahayana Buddhist art and architecture in China, Korea and Japan. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: identify the core beliefs of Buddhism, major Buddhist schools, and basic Buddhist iconography; identify major works of Buddhist art and Buddhist monuments from South, Southeast, and East Asia, as well as the Himalayas; identify the major developments in Buddhist doctrine and Buddhist art and architecture, as well as the relationship between the two as the religion spread throughout Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Himalayas. (Art History 406)
In this report funded by the World Bank and carried out by the firm PRTM, China's New Energy Program and 10 Cities 1000 Vehicles program are evaluated. China is on the forefront of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) development leading the world in funding of new energy vehicles (100 billion RMB investments by 2021). Leading the development of new energy technologies is faced with challenges such as policy, grid solutions, standards, new business models, new technologies, and customer acceptance. This report reviews China's current energy programs and predicts future government and commercial changes to come due to new energy technologies.
The authors of this unit define the characteristics of "civilization" and present Chinese culture and history in light of these characteristics. The original eight-week unit is available in the Primary Source library; four lessons are presented here: an introduction to the elements of civilization, Chinese dynasties, Chinese philosophy and the importance of silk to China's economic history.
A Curriculum Unit Developed to Support the Grade 4 Gifted and Talented Program. This web unit includes several lessons, classroom activities, a slide show, as well as web and bibliographic links. It uses the motif of the dragon in Chinese folklore to discuss aspects of Chinese literature, mythology and political history. This unit was designed by a librarian to be used by classroom teachers in cooperation with library-media specialists.
This unit of social history examines Traditional Chinese Family Values, Revolutionary Chinese Family Values (1950-1980) and Modern Chinese Family Values (1980-present).Length: The entire unit can fill seven weeks (35 days) if every activity is completed, but teachers can easily omit or add activities.Target grades: 11th /12th (many activities appropriate for 9th/10th grades)Teaching activities utilize Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory (linguistic, logical, spatial, kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal).Topics: Confucianism, Cultural Revolution, Tian'anmen Square Demonstrations, one-child policy, economic reforms
This lecture course provides students with a comprehensive introduction to the international relations of the People's Republic of China. China's foreign relations during the Cold War as well as contemporary diplomatic, security and economic issues will be examined to identify and explain China's foreign policy goals and their implementation since 1949. Throughout, this course will investigate the sources of conflict and cooperation in China's behavior, assessing competing explanations for key events and policies. Readings will be drawn from political science, history, and international relations theory.
This subject is the second semester of four that forms an introduction to modern standard Chinese, commonly called Mandarin. The emphasis is on further developing students' abilities to participate in simple, practical conversations on everyday topics as well as enhancing their abilities on reading and writing. The relationship between Chinese language and culture and the sociolinguistically appropriate use of language will be stressed throughout. A typical class includes performance of memorized basic conversations, drills, questions and discussion, and various types of communicative exercises. At the end of this course, students are expected to develop an understanding of the language learning process so that they will be able to continue studying effectively on their own.
This subject is the first semester of two that form an introduction to modern standard Chinese, commonly called Mandarin. Though not everyone taking this course will be an absolute beginner, the course presupposes no prior background in the language. The purpose of this course is to develop: Basic conversational abilities (pronunciation, fundamental grammatical patterns, common vocabulary, and standard usage); Basic reading and writing skills (in both the traditional character set and the simplified); and An understanding of the language learning process so that you are able to continue studying effectively on your own.The main text is Wheatley, J. K. Learning Chinese: A Foundation Course in Mandarin. Part I. (unpublished, but available online). (Part II of the book forms the basis of 21F.102 / 152, which is also published on OpenCourseWare.)
This is the last of the four courses (Chinese I through IV) that make up the foundation level (four semesters over two years in the normal curriculum) of MIT's regular (non-streamlined) Chinese program. Chinese IV is designed to consolidate conversational usage and grammatical and cultural knowledge encountered in the earlier courses, and to expand reading and listening abilities. It integrates the last part of Learning Chinese (two units designed primarily for review of grammatical concepts and vocabulary growth) with material from Madeline Spring's Making Connections, designed to bolster listening skills, and Linda Hsai and Roger Yue's Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio, a collection of traditional stories that has been a favorite of students of Chinese for many decades and is used here to focus on reading. Reading for this course is primarily, but not exclusively, in the simplified character set that is the standard on the Mainland; readings in the traditional set that is standard in Taiwan are also assigned. Students who have advanced through Chinese I, II, and III to reach this level, as well as those entering at Chinese IV, should review at least the late material in Chinese III before proceeding.
This is the second semester of the intermediate level sequence intended for students whose conversational ability exceeds their reading and writing skills. Focus is on reading and writing, as well as broadening conversational skills and control of standard pronunciation, for students with background in conversational Chinese. Lab work is required. On completing this course, students should be able to speak the language with standard pronunciation, to converse with some fluency on everyday topics, as well as on some specialized topics, to read edited, as well as authentic texts, in simplified or traditional characters with suitable fluency, and to be able to write composition on certain topics. The class consists of a combination of practice, reading, discussion, dictation, composition and feedback, net exploration via the web, and presentation. This course is conducted in Mandarin.
This course is the continuation of 21F105. It is designed to further help students develop sophisticated conversational, reading and writing skills by combining traditional textbook material with their own explorations of Chinese speaking societies, using the human, literary, and electronic resources available at MIT and in the Boston area. Some special features of Chinese society, its culture, its customs and habits, its history, and the psychology of its people are introduced. The class consists of reading, discussion, composition, network exploration, and conversational practice. The course is conducted in Mandarin.
Students develop more sophisticated conversational and reading skills by combining traditional textbook material with their own explorations of Chinese speaking societies, using the human, literary, and electronic resources available at MIT and in the Boston area. This course is the continuation of 21F104/108. It is designed to further help students develop sophisticated conversational, reading and writing skills by combining traditional textbook material with their own explorations of Chinese speaking societies, using the human, literary, and electronic resources available at in the Boston area. Some of special features of Chinese society, its culture, its customs and habits, its history, and the psychology of its people are be introduced. The class consists of reading, discussion, composition, network exploration, and conversational practice. The course is conducted in Mandarin.
This course is an introduction to three of the major genres of traditional Chinese literature - poetry, fiction and drama, with a focus on vernacular fiction. We will read translations of a number of the "masterworks" of Chinese literature. We will also examine the intertextuality between these genres - how poetry blends into narrative, how fiction becomes drama, and drama inspires fiction. Through reading these selected works of traditional Chinese literature, we will examine some of the major features of traditional Chinese society: religious and philosophical beliefs, the imperial system and dynastic change, gender relations, notions of class and ethnicity, family, romance and sexuality. All works are read in translation; no language background is necessary.
This form of painting became popular during the Cultural Revolution in China (1966-1976). Images depicting people's every day lives became a natural focus under the regime of Chairman Mao. Artists in places like Hu County in Shaanxi Province (near Xi'an), where these painting were made, were discovered and became popular. This particular series of Peasant Paintings, by a mature, female artist named Dong, were done in a studio production method.The peasant paintings depict festivals and daily routines: preparing food, doing laundry, traditional parades (lanterns, dragons), animals and fish. Some tell stories with symbolism. This curriculum resource will provide potential lesson topics and areas of discovery and a set of images for teachers of art, Chinese culture & history at elementary, middle and high school levels. The paintings may serve as supplementary visuals for K-8 teachers of science, and geography.
Conversations with History host Harry Kreisler welcomes Ruan Zongze, Vice President of the China Institute of International Studies, Beijing, for a discussion of China's changing domestic scene and its implications for Chinese foreign policy. (57 min)
Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes Susan Shirk, Professor of Political Science at UC San Diego, for a discussion of her new book, China: Fragile Superpower. A former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State in the Clinton administration, Professor Shirk analyzes how Chinese domestic politics affects its international behavior and how U.S. foreign policy responds to and influences China's international behavior. She also discusses how her work as a scholar of Chinese politics and society informed her work in Washington. (55 minutes)
Host Harry Kreisler welcomes The Right Honorable Lord Patten of Barnes CH for a discussion of the European UnionŐs common foreign and defense policy, relations between Europe and the United States, and the challenges posed by the emergence of the economies of China and India. Lord Patten also offers his reflections on diplomacy, enlargement, and the power of ideas in politics. (53 min)
Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes Parag Khanna, Senior Fellow at the New America Foundation. Their discussion focuses on the emerging world order characterized by 3 empires—the U.S., the European Union, and China—and a rising Second World which because of globalization has greater opportunity for self definition internally and influence externally. Parag Khanna elucidates the shape of this new world and its implications for U.S. foreign policy. (55 minutes)
Washington Post reporter John Pomfret discusses his new book, "Chinese Lessons: Five Classmates and the Story of the New China." (55 minutes)
Chinese dissident Wei Jingsheng joins Conversations host Harry Kreisler for a discussion of the factors that shaped his life as one of China's leading dissidents. (21 min)
On this episode of Conversations with History, author and University of Chicago professor John J. Mearsheimer joins UC Berkeley's Harry Kreisler to discuss the Realist theory of international relations and its implications for understanding the U.S. role in the world, future relations with China, and our response to the terrorist threat. (58 min)
Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes Mark Leonard, Executive Director of the European Council on Foreign Relations, for a discussion of the ideas that are influencing the domestic and foreign policy debates in China. Through a careful examination of what Chinese intellectuals have to say on topics such as democracy, economy, and international relations, Leonard finds distinctive Chinese worldviews. The West must understand the contours of these debates to effectively address China's rise because they offer important insights into how China will use its enormous power to shape world order in the twenty-first century. (59 minutes)