This is a task neutral proficiency scale for 1-ESS1-1. Resources used to make this: NGSS.NSTA.org, Appendix E from the NextGenScience site and the actual performance expectations. This scale was created through collaboration with five elementary teachers.
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The National Climate Assessment assesses the science of climate change and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century. It documents climate change related impacts and responses for various sectors and regions, with the goal of better informing public and private decision-making at all levels.
This is a task neutral proficiency scale for 5-ESS1-1. Resources used to make this: NGSS.NSTA.org, Appendix E from the NextGenScience site and the actual performance expectations. This scale was created through collaboration with five elementary teachers.
In August 2008, the "Mountain Weather Workshop: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Forecasting" was held in Whistler, BC, Canada. It was sponsored by the American Meteorological Society, UCAR/COMET, and the Meteorological Service of Canada. The workshop brought together researchers, faculty, students, and operational forecasters. Its primary goals were to help provide a better understanding of the state of the science of mountain meteorology from both a research and an operational perspective, and to discuss ways of improving interaction between the research and forecasting communities. The workshop consisted of lectures by distinguished speakers covering numerous topics related to weather in complex terrain. This webcast collection contains recordings of the presentations from the workshop.
The module examines the 2009 drought in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), focusing on conditions in Kenya. The module begins by reviewing drought conditions in the years leading up to 2009. From there, it examines the seasonal climate forecast for the beginning of 2009 and see what it portends. Satellite products are used to study rainfall performance throughout the year and its impact on the drought situation. Finally, the module describes the climate oscillations that can impact drought in the GHA and identifies patterns that were present in 2009 and contributed to its severity. By the end of the module, weather forecasters and students should have a better understanding of drought and the tools available for its early detection and monitoring.
The hazards associated with convective systems present some of the most dangerous conditions encountered by aircraft and pose many challenges to aviation operations. When convection is forecast to develop, aviation forecasters are required to issue a series of warning messages and other meteorological aeronautical products to various members of the aviation community. This lesson teaches these forecasters how to produce the products, doing so in the context of a case study in which learners assume the role of aeronautical forecaster on duty at the airport in Niamey, Niger on a night when convection develops. The lesson is one of three aviation weather case studies developed by the ASMET team to improve aviation forecasting in Africa.
Turbulence is a major concern for the aviation industry. It often goes undetected in cloud-free areas, catching pilots off guard when they fly into it. Turbulence can injure passengers and crew, and cause structural damage to aircraft. This makes it critical for aviation weather forecasters to closely monitor the atmosphere for signs of turbulence and issue special warnings when it is likely to be present. This lesson helps prepare forecasters for these tasks by providing general information about turbulence and showing them how to detect it using satellite imagery, tephigrams, and NWP products. The latter is presented in the form of a case study in which learners assume the role of aviation forecaster at Cape Town International Airport (South Africa), and need to determine if turbulence is likely to be present along a particular flight path. The lesson is intended for aviation weather forecasters, general weather forecasters interested in aviation meteorology, and meteorological instructors and students. Note that the lesson is one of three aviation weather case studies developed by the ASMET team to improve aviation forecasting in Africa.
This lesson aims to improve aviation forecasts of fog in the African airspace by teaching forecasters to make more accurate forecasts using satellite imagery, numerical weather prediction, and other available data. A process for diagnosing and forecasting fog is presented and applied to a case over the Nairobi, Kenya region. Learners assume the role of aviation forecaster, analysing various products to determine whether the current Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) is valid or needs to be amended. The lesson is intended for aviation forecasters, general weather forecasters interested in aviation meteorology, and meteorological forecasting instructors and students. This lesson is one of three aviation weather case studies developed by the ASMET project to improve aviation forecasting in Africa. They also support COMET's Review of Aeronautical Meteorology – Africa online learning curriculum, which provides training that supports the WMO/ICAO competencies for Aeronautical Meteorological Forecasters.
The rainy season in Sahelian West Africa extends from June to September and is tied to the position of the intertropical front. During this period, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) often produce significant rainfall that can lead to flooding. This module examines an extreme flooding event that occurred in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from 31 August to 1 September 2009. Learners assume the role of forecaster, assessing meteorological conditions to see if an MCS will develop that can lead to heavy rain and flooding. They follow a forecast process that emphasizes the use of satellite data, standard surface and upper-air charts, and model output. The forecast process is tied to a conceptual model of the key features that drive convective activities in West Africa.
This module introduces a variety of meteorological and hydrological products that can improve the quality of heavy rainfall forecasts and assist with hydrological management during extensive precipitation events in Southern Africa. Among the products are the satellite-based ASCAT, SMOS, and ASAR GM soil moisture products and the hydro-estimator. The products are presented within the context of a case, the flooding of South Africa's Vaal Dam region in 2009/2010.
The purpose of this module is to train operational meteorologists at NWS WFOs and elsewhere how to maximize opportunities to add value to NWP forecasts. The training includes use of the methods and tools from earlier modules in Course 2 of Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process. Included in the module are two case examples for the short- and medium-range. Additionally, a WES "caselet" is available from the NWS Warning Decision Training Branch that further illustrates how to add value to NWP guidance.
The “Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course Orientation” module introduces the organization of the course, the topics presented, and the intended audience, as well as the motivation for converting this course to online training. This web module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course..
This brief lesson provides an overview of the AHI on Himawari and highlights its differences from the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). It discusses AHI’s improved capabilities in spectral coverage, spatial resolution, and imaging interval over the MTSAT-2 imager; the differences in spectral coverage and scan strategy between AHI and ABI and the impact on products; and how AHI data and products benefit forecasters in Alaska, Pacific Region, and CONUS. Note that the lesson complements COMET’s GOES-R ABI lesson, which should be taken before going through this lesson.
Advanced Igneous Petrology covers the history of and recent developments in the study of igneous rocks. Students review the chemistry and structure of igneous rock-forming minerals and proceed to study how these minerals occur and interact in igneous rocks. The course focuses on igneous processes and how we have learned about them through studying a number of significant sites worldwide.
This lesson is an update to the 2008 expert lecture on hyperspectral observations presented by Dr. Mitch Goldberg, Program Scientist for NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program. The lesson discusses what hyperspectral observations are, how they are made, some current products, their contributions to improved monitoring of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces, as well as their impact on numerical weather prediction. The lesson begins by discussing the importance of satellite observing systems. From there, it reviews the principles of remote sensing that are needed for deriving products from hyperspectral infrared observations. The third and largest section of the lesson examines results from and operational applications of the AIRS, IASI, and CrIS hyperspectral sounders. The final section discusses the importance of hyperspectral soundings from geostationary satellites. The lesson has been updated from the original presentation to include information about NASA and NOAA's new polar orbiting programs and CrIS, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on the Suomi NPP polar orbiter.
12.491 is a seminar focusing on problems of current interest in geology and geochemistry. For Fall 2005, the topic is organic geochemistry. Lectures and readings cover recent research in the development and properties of organic matter.
This Webcast covers the ocean surface wind retrieval process, the basics of microwave polarization as it relates to wind retrievals, and several operational examples. Information on the development of microwave sensors used to retrieve ocean surface wind speed and the ocean surface wind vector (speed and direction) is also included.
This module describes characteristics of African easterly waves including horizontal and vertical structure, evolution, speed, frequency, methods of tracking, and their downstream transformation over the Atlantic, Caribbean, and East Pacific. Mechanisms for wave formation are presented. Also explored are differences between waves that develop into tropical cyclones and those that do not. The final sections focus on extratropical interactions and variability of easterly waves.
This collection of still images presents different ways to visualize air, from billowing sails to windblown hair to tornadoes. ***Access to Teacher's Domain content now requires free login to PBS Learning Media.
- Atmospheric Science
- Material Type:
- PBS LearningMedia
- University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
- Provider Set:
- PBS Learning Media: Multimedia Resources for the Classroom and Professional Development
- Teachers' Domain
- National Science Foundation
- WGBH Educational Foundation
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This is Activity 12 of a set of Level 1 activities designed by the Science Center for Teaching, Outreach, and Research on Meteorology (STORM) Project. The authors suggest that previous activities in the unit be completed before Activity 12: Air Masses, including those that address pressure systems and dew point temperature. In Activity 12, the students learn about the four main types of air masses that affect weather in the United States, their characteristic temperatures, and humidity levels as it relates to dew point temperatures. The lesson plan follows the 5E format. Initially, students discuss local weather and then examine surface temperature and dew point data on maps to determine patterns and possible locations of air masses. They learn about the source regions of air masses and compare their maps to a forecast weather map with fronts and pressure systems drawn in. During the Extension phase, students access current maps with surface and dew point temperatures at http://www.uni.edu/storm/activities/level1 and try to identify locations of air masses. They sketch in fronts and compare their results to the fronts map. Evaluation consists of collection of student papers.
Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.
Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.
Students are introduced to air masses, with an emphasis on the differences between and characteristics of high- versus low-pressure air systems. Students also hear about weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space.
This case study focuses on a snow and blowing snow event in the Canadian prairies and US northern high plains on 11-13 November 2003. The key aim of this module is to step through the forecast process during an Alberta Clipper event from the perspective of a forecaster with the Meteorological Service of Canada. This involves consideration of various observations and model guidance, identification of potential areas of snowfall and blowing snow, nowcasting snowfall development and termination, and considering and providing nowcast updates throughout.
This module discusses global climate change that is occurring largely because of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, and in particular the impact that tropical deforestation plays in the climate system. It also covers signs of climate change, the current thinking on future changes, and international agreements that are attempting to minimize the effects of climate change. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme) is also discussed.
This lesson is divided into three sections. The first section discusses the importance of analysis and diagnosis in evaluating NWP in the forecast process. In section two, we discuss a methodology for dealing with discrepancies between both the official forecast and NWP compared to analysis and diagnosis. The third section shows a representative example of the methodology.
This module describes the main elements to consider when analyzing wave model and buoy data. The module focuses on data products available from NOAA including spectral plots, maps, and text bulletins. East and West Coast wave-masking exercises conclude the module. The content in this module is an excerpt from the previously published COMET module Rip Currents: Forecasting.
This short video (~2 minutes) explains how a raindrop falls through the atmosphere and why a more accurate look at raindrops can improve estimates of global precipitation. This information is important to scientists working on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission - understanding the micro world of raindrops provides insight to scientists about the macro world of storms.
This experimental activity is designed to develop basic understanding of the relationship between the angle of light rays and the area over which the light rays are distributed, and the potential to affect changes in the temperature of materials. Resources needed to conduct this activity include a flashlight, cardboard, protractor and ruler. The resource includes background information, a pre-activity inquiry exploration for students, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 4 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.
Antarctica: Challenging Forecasts for a Challenging Environment features two educational pieces. The first is the overview giving the general audience a broad look at Antarctica including some history, interesting facts, real-life experiences, climate, and the challenges inherent to this frozen continent. The second is the main presentation where experts in Antarctic research and forecasting, share their knowledge of the continent. They discuss forecasting challenges as well as present and future research topics while providing elaborations on the uniqueness in Antarctica’s location, topography, and forecasting techniques as compared to other parts of the globe.
This classroom activity introduces students to Antarctica's organisms, landscapes, and seascapes. After examining the images in the photo gallery, students work in small groups to discuss their conclusions about the living conditions on this continent. The printable three-page handout includes a series of questions to help students structure their thoughts while viewing the gallery images and a group worksheet that guides students through a discussion of their evolving hypotheses and conclusions.
Anticipating Hazardous Weather and Community Risk, 2nd Edition provides emergency managers and other decision makers with background information about weather, natural hazards, and preparedness. Additional topics include risk communication, human behavior, and effective warning partnerships, as well as a desktop exercise allowing the learner to practice the types of decisions required as hazardous situations unfold. This module offers web-based content designed to address topics covered in the multi-day Hazardous Weather and Flood Preparedness course offered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Weather Service (NWS). The module also complements other onsite courses by those agencies and provides useful information for evaluating and preparing for threats from a range of weather and natural hazards.
Practical applications of the continuum concept for deformation of solids and fluids, emphasizing force balance. Stress tensor, infinitesimal and finite strain, and rotation tensors developed. Constitutive relations applicable to geological materials, including elastic, viscous, brittle, and plastic deformation. Solutions to classical problems in geodynamics.
This is a planned series of short case studies demonstrating critical thinking in the use of NWP products based on an understanding of the characteristics and limitations of NWP models and the NWP forecast process. We welcome any comments you may have regarding the case content, its discussion, or the instructional use and benefits of this material. In particular, we are interested in any additions or modifications to this type of case discussion that would make it more relevant and useful for the training of your forecasters.
This module discusses how to apply various observational data and remote sensing tools such as satellite, METARS, soundings, profilers, radar, and model analyses to diagnose the potential for fog and/or low stratus. Various forecast tools (such as model forecast fields, forecast soundings, and BUFKIT) used to assess fog and/or low stratus potential onset, intensity, and duration are also examined. This module is part of the Distance Learning Course 1: Forecasting Fog and Low Stratus.
Diminishing sea ice has opened the Arctic to navigation and operations like never before. Forecasters are increasingly predicting weather in support of those operations. This module is intended to provide forecasters with a brief introduction to the Arctic, including its geography, climatology, and the forecast problems they are likely to encounter. The module follows a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter on a voyage from Dutch Harbor, in the Aleutian Islands, to Barrow, on the north coast of Alaska. Various topics are addressed along the way in a series of short, stand-alone lessons.
Students will complete this survey that determines their personal and household contributions to atmospheric Carbon dioxide by using information about their previous year's consumption. They will understand that Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, and that its production can be minimized by taking personal steps to conserve.
Stakeholders of the Morro Bay National Estuary Program in California worked with resources from the EPA's Climate Ready Estuaries program to identify their climate risks. Their results helped them prioritize actions for building resilience.
The “Assessing Fire Danger” distance learning module explores techniques for recognizing weather and fuel conditions contributing to fire danger. The module includes a matrix of data sources offering useful weather, fuels, and other information related to fire ignition, spread, and intensity. An overview of situational awareness practices provides information relevant to forecasters in the office or field. This module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.
You've seen it happen repeatedly. Forecasters have a tough forecast ahead of them. But how are they supposed to know which model data will be the best one to help them come to a conclusion about the situation? In situations like this, the first step should always be to assess the model data against a set of current observations that should show a 1-to-1 relationship with the model output. Which variable should be plotted? On which surface? Which current observations will make the most sense to assess against? If you know the answers to some, but not all of these questions, find these answers and more by going through this lesson.