A strong foundation in science (including this social science) has always been an essential element of post-secondary education. The current White House administration demonstrates that people are much more impressionable when they don't have the critical tools to question so-called experts. Critical analysis of research has always been integral to the sciences, but with so much misinformation coming out of those in power, it is more important than ever to have a strong background in science and research.
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This collection of articles discusses findings in the field of cognitive science and cognitive psychology.
By the end of this section, you will be able to:Explain what a correlation coefficient tells us about the relationship between variablesRecognize that correlation does not indicate a cause-and-effect relationship between variablesDiscuss our tendency to look for relationships between variables that do not really existExplain random sampling and assignment of participants into experimental and control groupsDiscuss how experimenter or participant bias could affect the results of an experimentIdentify independent and dependent variables
Love is deeply biological. It pervades every aspect of our lives and has inspired countless works of art. Love also has a profound effect on our mental and physical state. A “broken heart” or a failed relationship can have disastrous effects; bereavement disrupts human physiology and may even precipitate death. Without loving relationships, humans fail to flourish, even if all of their other basic needs are met. As such, love is clearly not “just” an emotion; it is a biological process that is both dynamic and bidirectional in several dimensions. Social interactions between individuals, for example, trigger cognitive and physiological processes that influence emotional and mental states. In turn, these changes influence future social interactions. Similarly, the maintenance of loving relationships requires constant feedback through sensory and cognitive systems; the body seeks love and responds constantly to interactions with loved ones or to the absence of such interactions. The evolutionary principles and ancient hormonal and neural systems that support the beneficial and healing effects of loving relationships are described here.
The human brain is responsible for all behaviors, thoughts, and experiences described in this textbook. This module provides an introductory overview of the brain, including some basic neuroanatomy, and brief descriptions of the neuroscience methods used to study it.
Basic principles of learning are always operating and always influencing human behavior. This module discusses the two most fundamental forms of learning -- classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (operant) conditioning. Through them, we respectively learn to associate 1) stimuli in the environment, or 2) our own behaviors, with significant events, such as rewards and punishments. The two types of learning have been intensively studied because they have powerful effects on behavior, and because they provide methods that allow scientists to analyze learning processes rigorously. This module describes some of the most important things you need to know about classical and instrumental conditioning, and it illustrates some of the many ways they help us understand normal and disordered behavior in humans. The module concludes by introducing the concept of observational learning, which is a form of learning that is largely distinct from classical and operant conditioning.
The module examines the changes that take place in human beings across a broad range of areas including cognitive development, language development, personality and social development. In all these topics, the main focus is on the adolescent, the learner you will handle as a teacher.
Our thoughts and behaviors are strongly influenced by affective experiences known as drive states. These drive states motivate us to fulfill goals that are beneficial to our survival and reproduction. This module provides an overview of key drive states, including information about their neurobiology and their psychological effects.
By the end of this section, you will be able to:Discuss the guiding principles of ethical researchDiscuss how research involving human subjects is regulatedSummarize the processes of informed consent and debriefingExplain how research involving animal subjects is regulated
We think important objects and events in our world will automatically grab our attention, but they often don’t, particularly when our attention is focused on something else. The failure to notice unexpected objects or events when attention is focused elsewhere is now known as inattentional blindness. The study of such failures of awareness has a long history, but their practical importance has received increasing attention over the past decade. This module describes the history and status of research on inattentional blindness, discusses the reasons why we find these results to be counterintuitive, and the implications of failures of awareness for how we see and act in our world.
Emotions play a crucial role in our lives because they have important functions. This module describes those functions, dividing the discussion into three areas: the intrapersonal, the interpersonal, and the social and cultural functions of emotions. The section on the intrapersonal functions of emotion describes the roles that emotions play within each of us individually; the section on the interpersonal functions of emotion describes the meanings of emotions to our relationships with others; and the section on the social and cultural functions of emotion describes the roles and meanings that emotions have to the maintenance and effective functioning of our societies and cultures at large. All in all we will see that emotions are a crucially important aspect of our psychological composition, having meaning and function to each of us individually, to our relationships with others in groups, and to our societies as a whole.
This module discusses gender and its related concepts, including sex, gender roles, gender identity, sexual orientation, and sexism. In addition, this module includes a discussion of differences that exist between males and females and how these real gender differences compare to the stereotypes society holds about gender differences. In fact, there are significantly fewer real gender differences than one would expect relative to the large number of stereotypes about gender differences. This module then discusses theories of how gender roles develop and how they contribute to strong expectations for gender differences. Finally, the module concludes with a discussion of some of the consequences of relying on and expecting gender differences, such as gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and ambivalent sexism.
Intelligence is among the oldest and longest studied topics in all of psychology. The development of assessments to measure this concept is at the core of the development of psychological science itself. This module introduces key historical figures, major theories of intelligence, and common assessment strategies related to intelligence. This module will also discuss controversies related to the study of group differences in intelligence.
You are welcome to this module that introduces you to General Psychology first and later Educational Psychology. There are four units in all. A total of 120 hours is given which we think should be adequate for you to complete the module. The hours given should also cover the different activities as well as doing the readings that are included. A summary of the major tasks in each unit is presented for your benefit:
Unit one introduces you to the meaning, definition, origin and development of Psychology as a field of study, the different branches, concepts and its relevance to educational process. Finally the unit introduces you to the concepts, and different methods of study that are used in Educational Psychology.
Unit two discusses the relationships between Psychology and Education, and their implications to a practicing teacher. The contributions of Educational Psychology to educational practice are also presented.
Unit three presents to you issues of methods of study used in conducting studies in Educational Psychology. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are also discussed. Unit four introduces you to the benefits of Educational Psychology to the teacher, and to educational process/practice in a school setting and society in general.
Humans have the capacity to use complex language, far more than any other species on Earth. We cooperate with each other to use language for communication; language is often used to communicate about and even construct and maintain our social world. Language use and human sociality are inseparable parts of Homo sapiens as a biological species.
Welcome to this module titled Learning Psychology. In this module our focus will be on human learning. Human learning is not an entirely new topic to you since it was discussed at introductory level in the General Psychology unit and also in Developmental Psychology. Learning is undoubtedly one of the most important parts of psychology for the simple reason that most, if not all, human behaviour is either learned or is influenced by learning. A basic understanding of the behaviour of human beings therefore calls for basic knowledge of the basic psychological principles, concepts and approaches in classroom teaching and learning. The other factors that influence learning are inheritance, but this is beyond the scope of this module.
This activity reinforces learning about levels of measurement and frequency distributions in an intro level Social Science Statistics course. Students identify something up from their life, collect data for their variable, assess its level of measurement and make a frequency distribution.
This learning resource will enable the learner to understand the hierarchy of needs as described by Abraham Maslow. Before you do the task, look at the Resource Library ( to the right of this page) and go through the various resources mentioned. You can look at more resources too.