This space collects OER materials on volcanoes and earthquakes and their associated hazards with a focus on the Pacific Northwest.
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This manual is about structures that occur within the Earth’s crust. Structures are the features that allow geologists to figure out how parts of the Earth have changed position, orientation, size and shape over time. This work requires careful observation and measurements of features at the surface of the Earth, and deductions about what’s below the surface. The practical skills you will learn in this course form the foundation for much of what is known about the history of the Earth, and are important tools for exploring the subsurface. They are essential for Earth scientists of all kinds.
When you ask the question What is geology? most people will initially respond that it is the study of rocks. This is true, but geology is also so much more than that. The truth is that geology is an intricate part of your everyday life.
Geology can roughly be divided into physical geology, which studies the materials of the Earth and the processes operating in it, and historical geology, which aims at a reconstruction of the history of the Earth. Historical geology requires some knowledge of physical geology for its elucidation. (Imagine, by way of analogy, forensic scientists diagnosing cause of death as a gunshot wound, which is a historical question. It would obviously be necessary for them to know something about the behavior of guns, which would be a physical question.) However, the aim of historical geology is to understand the past, and knowledge of physical geology is merely an adjunct to this aim.
This text is provided to you as an Open Educational Resource which you access online. It is designed to give you a comprehensive introduction to Geology at no or very nominal cost. It contains both written and graphic text material, intra-text links to other internal material which may aid in understanding topics and concepts, intra-text links to the appendices and glossary for tables and definitions of words, and extra-text links to videos and web material that clarifies and augments topics and concepts. Like any new or scientific subject, Geology has its own vocabulary for geological concepts. For you to converse effectively with this text and colleagues in this earth science course, you will use the language of geology, so comprehending these terms is important. Use the intra-text links to the Glossary and other related material freely to gain familiarity with this language.
This textbook is a comprehensive lab manual for the core curriculum Introductory Geosciences classes with both informational content and laboratory exercises. Topics include basic laws and theories in Geology, the Earth's interior and plate tectonics, water and climate change, igneous rocks and volcanoes, and earthquakes.
Physical Geology is a comprehensive introductory text on the physical aspects of geology, including rocks and minerals, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciation, groundwater, streams, coasts, mass wasting, climate change, planetary geology and much more. It has a strong emphasis on examples from western Canada, especially British Columbia, and also includes a chapter devoted to the geological history of western Canada. The book is a collaboration of faculty from Earth Science departments at Universities and Colleges across British Columbia and elsewhere.
The principles of rock mechancis explains the fundamental concepts of continuum mechanics and rheology as applied in studies of rock deformation. A thorough understanding of rock behavior is essential for strategic planning in the petroleum and mining industry, in construction operation, and in locating subsurface repositories. The formation of geological structures or rock deformation patterns, studied by geodynamicists and tectonicians, is, also governed by the mechanical principles outlined in this textbook. The aim of the present book is obvious: to inspire a new generation of positively forward-thinking geoscientists and engineers, skillful in and favorable to the practical application of mechanics to rock structures.
The discipline of structural geology studies the architecture of the solid Earth and other planets. Rock deformation patterns are exciting features beacause of their aesthetic beauty and their economic interest to man. Knowledge of the subsurface structure is vital for the success of a variety of engineering and mineral exploration pograms. A thorough understanding of rock structures is essential for strategic planning in the petroleum and mining industry, in construction operations, in waste disposal surveys and for water exploration. Deformation structures in the country rock are important further for locallizing hazard zones, such as potential rockslide masses, ground subsidence, and seismic faults. Research activities concentrate on rock defomation structures in he shallow continental crust.