Keywords: Peer Instruction (89)

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Active Learning of Respiratory Physiology Improves Performance on Respiratory Physiology Examinations
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Active Learning of Respiratory Physiology Improves Performance on Respiratory Physiology Examinations

Active involvement in the learning process has been suggested to enhance creative ... (more)

Active involvement in the learning process has been suggested to enhance creative thinking, judgement, interpretation, and problem-solving skills. Therefore, educators are encouraged to create an active-learning environment by incorporating active-learning strategies into the class. However, there is very little documentation of the effectiveness of active-learning strategies. Furthermore, faculty are often reluctant to incorporate new strategies without documentation of the effectiveness of these strategies. To address this concern, we compared the performance of two individual classes on an identical respiratory physiology examination. One class was taught respiratory physiology using active-learning strategies. The other class was taught respiratory physiology using the traditional lecture format. The results document that students who learned using active-learning strategies did significantly better (P < 0.05) on the respiratory physiology examination than students who learned by the traditional lecture format (61 퉌ą 2.2 vs. 86 퉌ą 1.0). Thus, by actively involving students in the learning process, academic performance is enhanced. (less)

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Assessments
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
PhD Stephen M. DiCarlo (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept of Physiology)
PhD Sumangala Rao (Wayne State Univ Sch Med Dept Physiology)
The Art (and Science) of In-Class Questioning via Clickers (Learning About Teaching Physics podcast)
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The Art (and Science) of In-Class Questioning via Clickers (Learning About Teaching Physics podcast)

Are "clickers" or "personal response systems" just the latest fad in education? ... (more)

Are "clickers" or "personal response systems" just the latest fad in education? Or is there solid research behind their use? In this episode we share some recent studies that really highlight how clickers can be used most effectively, and how they can save the world! --- Thanks to <a href = "http://mazur-www.harvard.edu/">Eric Mazur</a> of Harvard University, <a href = "http://mcdb.colorado.edu/mcdb/knight">Jenny Knight</a> of University of Colorado at Boulder, and <a href = "http://www.as.arizona.edu/people/faculty/prather.html">Ed Prather</a> of the University of Arizona.for their participation in this podcast. You can see the complete show notes, credits, cited studies, and subscribe to this podcast's RSS feed, at <a href="http://perusersguide.org/podcasts">the PER User's Guide</a>. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Audio Lectures
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Dr. Stephanie Chasteen
Assessing and Enhancing the Introductory Science Course in Physics and Biology: Peer Instruction, Classroom Demonstrations, and Genetics Vocabulary
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Assessing and Enhancing the Introductory Science Course in Physics and Biology: Peer Instruction, Classroom Demonstrations, and Genetics Vocabulary

Most introductory college science courses in the United States are taught in ... (more)

Most introductory college science courses in the United States are taught in large lectures with students rarely having the opportunity to think critically about the material being presented nor to participate actively. Further, many classes focus on teaching rather than learning, that is, the transfer of information as opposed to actual student understanding. This thesis focuses on three studies about the assessment and enhancement of learning in undergraduate science courses. We describe the results of an international survey on the implementation of Peer Instruction (PI), a collaborative learning pedagogy in which lectures are interspersed with short conceptual questions designed to challenge students to think about the material as it is being presented. We present a portrait of the instructors teaching with PI and data on the effectiveness of PI in enhancing student learning in diverse settings. The wide variety of implementations suggests that PI is a highly adaptable strategy. We also provide recommendations for those considering adopting PI in their classes. Classroom demonstrations are an important aspect of many introductory science courses, but there is little evidence supporting their educational effectiveness. We explore the effect of different modes of presentation on enhancing student learning from demonstrations. Our results show that students who predict the outcome before a demonstration is conducted are better able to recall and explain the scenario posed by that demonstration. As preliminary work for the creation of a conceptual inventory for introductory biology, we discuss results from a survey of vocabulary familiarity and understanding in an undergraduate genetics course. Students begin introductory classes with significant gaps in their understanding, some of which are retained beyond instruction. Further, they overstate their knowledge, and the degree to which they exhibit overconfidence increases over the period of instruction. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Physics
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Adam P. Fagen
Assessing gender differences in response system questions for an introductory physics course
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Assessing gender differences in response system questions for an introductory physics course

In this work, we investigate whether gender differences are present in the ... (more)

In this work, we investigate whether gender differences are present in the iClicker student response system during introductory physics lectures in an engaged environment. We find that men and women are equally likely to respond to questions correctly and in the same amount of time. We also find that both genders make use of multiple responses in the same timescale, however, the average number of responses for a given question is significantly higher for men than women. Upon analyzing these responses, we also find men are slightly more likely than women to change their response, while the response base station is open. Both genders benefit from peer instruction by answering more quickly and correctly. The connection between previously documented timescale differences, differences in ungraded responses, and their implications for the classroom environment are discussed. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Technology
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Brian W. O'Shea
Chris T. Richardson
Assessing-to-Learn Physics: Strobe Diagram
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Assessing-to-Learn Physics: Strobe Diagram

This web page contains a concept question for introductory physics on the ... (more)

This web page contains a concept question for introductory physics on the use of strobe diagrams to demonstrate acceleration. Given four different diagrams, users must decide which objects are accelerating. This item can be used as a "Question of The Day" or with an electronic classroom response system (Clickers). Background information and tips to elicit critical thinking are also provided. This item is part of a larger library of similar questions, which may be searched by grade level and topic. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Assessments
Instructional Material
Lecture Notes
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Ian D. Beatty
Assessing-to-Learn Questions Database
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Assessing-to-Learn Questions Database

This web site provides an organized collection of questions designed for use ... (more)

This web site provides an organized collection of questions designed for use with a classroom response system. The question library can be searched by grade levels, physics topics, and user-entered search terms. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Assessments
Instructional Material
Lecture Notes
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Ian D. Beatty
National Science Foundation
C21: Physics Teaching for the 21st Century
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C21: Physics Teaching for the 21st Century

Physics Teaching for the 21st Century is a resource for teachers who ... (more)

Physics Teaching for the 21st Century is a resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real world contexts. The great problems of the 20th century were solved by a few incredibly smart people. The great problems of the 21st century will have to be solved by billions of moderately smart people. This is where teachers come in... In this website you will find: * articles that clearly explain the physics concepts in a real world context * take-home experiments that can be done by students or by teachers as demonstrations in class * lecture notes in the form of power point presentations * multiple choice questions to use as a quick test of understanding during lectures, and as a way to stimulate critical thinking. * problem sets and exam questions that would interest students (including solutions) * data sheets with realistic numbers and information * videos further explaining physics concepts in real world contexts (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Lecture Notes
Lesson Plans
Simulations
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
University of British Columbia
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Individual Authors
Author:
Physics and Astronomy Outreach
CWSEI: Clicker Resources
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CWSEI: Clicker Resources

This resource website on effective use of personal response systems or "clickers" ... (more)

This resource website on effective use of personal response systems or "clickers" contains many helpful links, including quality clicker question banks, articles, an instructor resource guide, handouts for workshops, and links to videos. These resources part of the education and professional development work of the Science Education Initiative at the University of Colorado and the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Lesson Plans
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Carl E. Wieman
Stephanie V. Chasteen
ComPADRE-SERC Pedagogic Library
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ComPADRE-SERC Pedagogic Library

This website contains a collection of proven pedagogic methods for science education ... (more)

This website contains a collection of proven pedagogic methods for science education with example activities in physics and astronomy attached. The teaching approaches are described in short essays that include links to research on the effectiveness and impact on learning. The activities are specific and complete examples for teaching some topic. They are written and peer reviewed by a group of experienced educators and researchers. This is a collaboration between the ComPADRE library and SERC Pedagogic Service. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Comparing Educational Tools Using Activity Theory: Clickers and Flashcards
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Comparing Educational Tools Using Activity Theory: Clickers and Flashcards

Physics educators and researchers have recently begun to distinguish between pedagogical approaches ... (more)

Physics educators and researchers have recently begun to distinguish between pedagogical approaches and the educational technologies that are used to implement them. For instance, peer instruction has been shown to be equally effective, in terms of student learning outcomes, when implemented with clickers or flashcards. Therefore, technological tools (clickers and flashcards) can be viewed as means to mediate pedagogical techniques (peer instruction or traditional instruction). In this paper, we use activity theory to examine peer instruction, with particular attention to the role of tools. This perspective helps clarify clickers’ and flashcards’ differences, similarities, impacts in the classroom, and utility to education researchers. Our analysis can suggest improvements and new uses. Finally, we propose activity theory as a useful approach in understanding and improving the use of technology in the physics classroom. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Charles De Leone
Edward Price
Nathaniel Lasry
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Collaborative Groups and Peer Instruction in a Large Introductory Physics Course for Science Majors
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Comparison of the Effectiveness of Collaborative Groups and Peer Instruction in a Large Introductory Physics Course for Science Majors

We report on an experiment comparing examinations of concepts using slightly modified ... (more)

We report on an experiment comparing examinations of concepts using slightly modified peer instruction (MPI) interventions with a conceptual conflict strategy based on collaborative groups (CG). Four interventions were utilized in two sections of an introductory physics course for science students. Both instructors and strategies were alternated in the two classes so that instructor dependence could be factored out and so that each class could serve as both an experimental and a control group. The gain on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) used as a pre- and post-test is essentially the same in both classes. The instructors were experienced in use of MPI, but this was the first time that these instructors had used a collaborative group activity in their classes and only used it for the two interventions in each class described in this paper. CG appears to be more effective as a teaching method than PI. It also should be noted that the effectiveness of both teaching methods seems to be instructor independent as long as the instructors followed the same protocol. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Calvin S. Kalman
Marina Milner-Bolotin
Tetyana Antimirova
Development and Evaluation of Clicker Methodology for Introductory Physics Courses
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Development and Evaluation of Clicker Methodology for Introductory Physics Courses

Many educators understand that lectures are cost effective but not learning efficient, ... (more)

Many educators understand that lectures are cost effective but not learning efficient, so continue to search for ways to increase active student participation in this traditionally passive learning environment. In-class polling systems, or “clickers”, are inexpensive and reliable tools allowing students to actively participate in lectures by answering multiple-choice questions. Students assess their learning in real time by observing instant polling summaries displayed in front of them. This in turn motivates additional discussions which increase the opportunity for active learning. We wanted to develop a comprehensive clicker methodology that creates an active lecture environment for a broad spectrum of students taking introductory physics courses. We wanted our methodology to incorporate many findings of contemporary learning science. It is recognized that learning requires active construction; students need to be actively involved in their own learning process. Learning also depends on preexisting knowledge; students construct new knowledge and understandings based on what they already know and believe. Learning is context dependent; students who have learned to apply a concept in one context may not be able to recognize and apply the same concept in a different context, even when both contexts are considered to be isomorphic by experts. On this basis, we developed question sequences, each involving the same concept but having different contexts. Answer choices are designed to address students preexisting knowledge. These sequences are used with the clickers to promote active discussions and multiple assessments. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Albert Lee
Does Displaying the Class Results Affect Student Discussion during Peer Instruction?
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Does Displaying the Class Results Affect Student Discussion during Peer Instruction?

The use of personal response systems, or clickers, is increasingly common in ... (more)

The use of personal response systems, or clickers, is increasingly common in college classrooms. Although clickers can increase student engagement and discussion, their benefits also can be overstated. A common practice is to ask the class a question, display the responses, allow the students to discuss the question, and then collect the responses a second time. In an introductory biology course, we asked whether showing students the class responses to a question biased their second response. Some sections of the course displayed a bar graph of the student responses and others served as a control group in which discussion occurred without seeing the most common answer chosen by the class. If students saw the bar graph, they were 30% more likely to switch from a less common to the most common response. This trend was more pronounced in true/false questions (38%) than multiple-choice questions (28%). These results suggest that observing the most common response can bias a student's second vote on a question and may be misinterpreted as an increase in performance due to student discussion alone. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Technology
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Anne M. Galbraith
Eric A. Strauss
Kathryn E. Perez
Nicholas Downey
Robert Jeanne
Scott Cooper
Effectiveness of different tutorial recitation teaching methods and its implications for TA training
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Effectiveness of different tutorial recitation teaching methods and its implications for TA training

We present results from a comparative study of student understanding for students ... (more)

We present results from a comparative study of student understanding for students who attended recitation classes that used different teaching methods. Student volunteers from our introductory calculus-based physics course attended a special recitation class that was taught using one of four different teaching methods. A total of 272 students were divided into approximately equal groups for each method. Students in each class were taught the same topic, “Changes in Energy and Momentum,” from Tutorials in Introductory Physics. The different teaching methods varied in the amount of student and teacher engagement. Student understanding was evaluated through pre- and post-tests. Our results demonstrate the importance of the instructor’s role in teaching recitation classes. The most effective teaching method was for students working in cooperative learning groups with the instructors questioning the groups using Socratic dialogue. In addition, we investigated student preferences for modes of instruction through an open-ended survey. Our results provide guidance and evidence for the teaching methods that should be emphasized in training course instructors. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Geoscience
Physics
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Gregory A. Braun
Kathleen M. Koenig
Robert J. Endorf
The Effect of Initial Conditions and Discussion on Students’ Predictions for Interactive Lecture Demonstrations
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The Effect of Initial Conditions and Discussion on Students’ Predictions for Interactive Lecture Demonstrations

Over the past eight years at McDaniel College, students’ Predictions for various ... (more)

Over the past eight years at McDaniel College, students’ Predictions for various Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) have improved markedly. One explanation is that students have become increasingly sophisticated in their understanding of kinematics and dynamics. Another possible explanation is that the class as a whole is only slightly more sophisticated, and during the Discussion Phase of the ILD the correct Predication is very successfully transmitted within groups and between groups. The purpose of this paper is to support the proposition of this possible explanation. To begin to address this idea, I present an overview of and results from a preliminary, computer-based simulation of classroom discussion. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Computing and Information
Engineering
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Jeffrey Marx
Faculty Perspectives On Using Peer Instruction: A National Study
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Faculty Perspectives On Using Peer Instruction: A National Study

We previously reported on the results of a national web survey of ... (more)

We previously reported on the results of a national web survey of physics faculty about their instructional practices in introductory physics. A subset of 72 survey respondents were interviewed to better characterize how faculty interact with research-based instructional strategies (RBIS), use RBIS, and perceive their institutional contexts. Drawing from 15 interviews with self-reported users of Peer Instruction, we describe what faculty mean when they identify themselves as users of Peer Instruction. Meanings range from professors adopting the general philosophy of the instructional strategy (or what they believe to be the general philosophy) while inventing how it concretely applies in their classrooms to professors who use the instructional strategy as is, without significant modification. We describe common modifications that are made to Peer Instruction and the associated prevalence of these modifications. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Chandra Turpen
Charles R. Henderson
Melissa H. Dancy
Improving Students’ Understanding of Quantum Measurement
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Improving Students’ Understanding of Quantum Measurement

We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum ... (more)

We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students’ understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Chandralekha Singh
Guangtian Zhu
Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics
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Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics

Learning physics is challenging at all levels. Students’ difficulties in the introductory ... (more)

Learning physics is challenging at all levels. Students’ difficulties in the introductory level physics courses have been widely studied and many instructional strategies have been developed to help students learn introductory physics. However, research shows that there is a large diversity in students’ preparation and skills in the upper-level physics courses and it is necessary to provide scaffolding support to help students learn advanced physics. This thesis explores issues related to students’ common difficulties in learning upper-level undergraduate quantum mechanics and how these difficulties can be reduced by research-based learning tutorials and peer instruction tools. We investigated students’ difficulties in learning quantum mechanics by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students. Based on these investigations, we developed Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) and peer instruction tools to help students build a hierarchical knowledge structure of quantum mechanics through a guided approach. Preliminary assessments indicate that students’ understanding of quantum mechanics is improved after using the research-based learning tools in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. We also designed a standardized conceptual survey that can help instructors better probe students’ understanding of quantum mechanics concepts in one spatial dimension. The validity and reliability of this quantum mechanics survey is discussed. (less)

Subject:
Chemistry
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Guangtian Zhu
Improving students' understanding of quantum mechanics by using peer instruction tools
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Improving students' understanding of quantum mechanics by using peer instruction tools

Quantum mechanics is a challenging subject, even for advanced undergraduate and graduate ... (more)

Quantum mechanics is a challenging subject, even for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Here, we discuss the development and evaluation of research-based concept tests for peer instruction as a formative assessment tool in quantum mechanics (QM) courses. The preliminary evaluations show that these tools are effective in helping students develop a good grasp of quantum mechanics. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Chandralekha Singh
Guangtian Zhu
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