Keywords: Pathogenesis (9)

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Maintaining Diplomatic Relations Between Mammals and Beneficial Microbial Communities
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Maintaining Diplomatic Relations Between Mammals and Beneficial Microbial Communities

The first reports of diplomatic relations between human communities date back to ... (more)

The first reports of diplomatic relations between human communities date back to the 14th century B.C.E. and the age of the Egyptian pharaohs. However, the evolution of analogous relations between mammals and mutualistic microbial communities is as old as multicellular organisms themselves. A fundamental issue surrounding the biology of these mutualistic relationships is how the immune system recognizes beneficial microbes and tolerates their colonization of barrier surfaces while simultaneously preventing their outgrowth and potentially lethal dissemination throughout the host. New evidence provides insight into the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate diplomacy between the mammalian immune system and bacterial communities in the gut. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David A. Hill (University of Pennsylvania;Department of Pathobiology REV)
David Artis (University of Pennsylvania;Department of Pathobiology REV)
MicrobeWorld
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MicrobeWorld

Welcome to the Teachers' Corner of Small Things Considered. In this section, ... (more)

Welcome to the Teachers' Corner of Small Things Considered. In this section, we include the posts we deem most adequate for teaching purposes. We have reorganized them into subject areas geared for a typical microbiology course. To date, this material has been used for various forms of intellectual enrichment, e.g., suggested readings, class presentations, a source of topics for term papers. You can also find here our Talmudic Questions, which we characterize as those whose answers cannot be found in Google. We are told that some of these questions have been used in exams ranging from tests for undergraduate courses to qualifying/prelims for graduate students. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Assessments
Readings
Provider:
American Society for Microbiology
Provider Set:
Microbial Life (MLER) (SERC)
Neurofibrillary Tangles and Alzheimer's Disease
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Neurofibrillary Tangles and Alzheimer's Disease

Professor Kenneth Kosik discusses neurofibrillary tangles, which form inside a cell and ... (more)

Professor Kenneth Kosik discusses neurofibrillary tangles, which form inside a cell and are made up of a protein called tau. There is a strong relationship with plaques and amyloid deposition. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Video Lectures
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Amy Nisselle REV
Caren Gough TITLE
Danielle Sixsmith NOTE;ENCODING=QUOTED-PRINTABLE
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
John Connolly (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Laura Maitland (Mepham High School TITLE)
Mary Colvard TITLE
Plasticity of Helper CD4+ T Cells
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Plasticity of Helper CD4+ T Cells

CD4+ T cells are critical for host defense but are also major ... (more)

CD4+ T cells are critical for host defense but are also major drivers of immune-mediated disease. Recent work calls into question whether helper CD4+ T cell subsets are more appropriately viewed as terminally differentiated cells or works in progress. This article reviews recent advances that pertain to this topic and the mechanisms that contribute to helper CD4+ T cell commitment and plasticity. (less)

Subject:
Chemistry
Physics
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
John Oí˘ŒóŒťShea (National Institutes of Health;)
William Paul (National Institutes of Health;)
Role of Insulin, Adipocyte Hormones, and Nutrient-Sensing Pathways in Regulating Fuel Metabolism and Energy Homeostasis: A Nutritional Perspective of Diabetes, Obesity, and Cancer
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Role of Insulin, Adipocyte Hormones, and Nutrient-Sensing Pathways in Regulating Fuel Metabolism and Energy Homeostasis: A Nutritional Perspective of Diabetes, Obesity, and Cancer

The classical view of the endocrine system and how it controls intermediary ... (more)

The classical view of the endocrine system and how it controls intermediary metabolism is rapidly changing with the realization that metabolic fuels can function outside of their traditional role as substrates for the generation of high-energy molecules and as precursors for the biosynthesis of macromolecules. Specifically, both glucose and amino acids are now recognized as important signaling molecules in nutrient-sensing transductional pathways, collectively known as nutrient signaling pathways. Three distinct nutrient signaling pathways have been identified and appear to play a major role in human health and disease. The hexosamine signaling pathway senses changes in intracellular glucose availability and attempts to restore fuel and energy homeostasis by regulating glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the release of adipocyte-specific hormones. Under hyperglycemic conditions, enhanced flux through the hexosamine signaling pathway leads to insulin resistance, which worsens control of blood glucose levels in diabetics and serves as a prominent risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway monitors intracellular amino acid levels and regulates protein synthesis, cell growth, and ribosomal biogenesis. Finally, the adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway senses intracellular energy levels and restores adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels by inhibiting anabolic pathways that consume ATP and stimulating catabolic pathways that generate cellular energy. Genetic abnormalities in signaling components of the mTOR and AMPK pathways have recently been linked to unregulated cell growth and the development of various forms of cancer. We illustrate how nutrient signaling pathways are interconnected at multiple levels, tightly coupled to insulin signaling, and linked to the release of metabolic hormones from adipose tissue. Moreover, we propose that nutrient signaling pathways serve as components of a larger "metabolic regulatory network" that controls fuel and energy metabolism (at the cell, tissue, and whole-body levels) and links nutrient availability with cell growth and proliferation. This perspective provides a conceptual framework for understanding how nutrients and hormones interact in the control of intermediary metabolism, and how nutrient excess and molecular abnormalities in insulin signaling and nutrient signaling pathways can lead to the pathogenesis of various metabolic diseases and to carcinogenesis. (less)

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Life Science
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Stephen Marshall (WA;Hexos Inc., Woodinville REV)
Sophisticated Survival Skills of Simple Microorganisms, Spring 2008
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Sophisticated Survival Skills of Simple Microorganisms, Spring 2008

In this course, we will discuss the microbial physiology and genetics of ... (more)

In this course, we will discuss the microbial physiology and genetics of stress responses in aquatic ecosystems, astrobiology, bacterial pathogenesis and other environments. We will learn about classical and novel methods utilized by researchers to uncover bacterial mechanisms induced under both general and environment-specific stresses. Finally, we will compare and contrast models for bacterial stress responses to gain an understanding of distinct mechanisms of survival and of why there are differences among bacterial genera. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Full Course
Homework and Assignments
Lecture Notes
Syllabi
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Dolberry, Adrienne
TNF-R1 Signaling: A Beautiful Pathway
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TNF-R1 Signaling: A Beautiful Pathway

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of apoptosis as well ... (more)

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of apoptosis as well as inflammation and immunity, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of human diseases, including sepsis, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The interaction of TNF with TNF receptorí˘ŒóŒń1 (TNF-R1) activates several signal transduction pathways. A common feature of each pathway is the TNF-induced formation of a multiprotein signaling complex at the cell membrane. Over the past decade, many of the components and mechanisms of these signaling pathways have been elucidated. We provide an overview of current knowledge of TNF signaling and introduce an STKE Connections Map that depicts a canonical view of this process. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Images and Illustrations
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Goeddel (Tularik Inc.;)
Guoqing Chen (Tularik Inc.;)
Wnt/{beta}-Catenin and MAPK Signaling: Allies and Enemies in Different Battlefields
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Wnt/{beta}-Catenin and MAPK Signaling: Allies and Enemies in Different Battlefields

Two papers published in Science Signaling reveal extensive crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and ... (more)

Two papers published in Science Signaling reveal extensive crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in cancer. Although both studies describe previously unknown links between these two signaling pathways, the relationship between Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK signaling depends on the specific cellular context. Indeed, in melanoma, hyperactivated MAPK signaling down-regulates the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction cascade, thereby establishing a negative crosstalk between the two signaling pathways. In contrast, in colorectal cancer, stimulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway leads to activation of the MAPK pathway through Ras stabilization, representing an example of positive crosstalk. Moreover, activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has context-dependent functions that trigger opposing effects on tumor growth. In melanoma, aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling may have anti-oncogenic functions by promoting programmed cell death; by contrast, in the intestine, Wnt/β-catenin signaling drives malignant transformation. Thus, there is no single correct way to target the Wnt/β-catenin pathway for all cancers. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Daniele Guardavaccaro (Hubrecht Institute-KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht; REV)
Hans Clevers (Hubrecht Institute-KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht; REV)
iBioSeminar: Center Plant Viruses and Crops
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iBioSeminar: Center Plant Viruses and Crops

This seminar describes the cell and molecular biology of plant virus infection. ... (more)

This seminar describes the cell and molecular biology of plant virus infection. The first lecture will discuss how virus replication centers are set up in plants and how viruses use host cell mechanisms to facilitate cell to cell movement and eventual pathogenesis. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Lecture Notes
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Roger Beachy (Donald Danforth Plant Science Center;)
2002 llaF ,gnivloS melborP gnireenignE dna sretupmoC ot noitcudortnI

2002 llaF ,gnivloS melborP gnireenignE dna sretupmoC ot noitcudortnI

.desu si egaugnal gnimmargorp avaJ ehT .gninnalp dna ,tnemeganam ,ecneics ,gnireenigne ni ... (more)

.desu si egaugnal gnimmargorp avaJ ehT .gninnalp dna ,tnemeganam ,ecneics ,gnireenigne ni smelborp gnivlos rof seuqinhcet gnipoleved no si sisahpmE .scipot decnavda detceles dna scihparg retupmoc ,gnihcraes dna gnitros ,serutcurts atad ,sdohtem laciremun ,secafretni resu lacihparg ,stpecnoc gnimmargorp revoc smelborp gnimmargorp ylkeeW .esruoc eht fo sucof eht si tnempoleved dna ngised erawtfos detneiro-tcejbO .snoitacilppa cifitneics dna gnireenigne rof sdohtem lanoitatupmoc dna tnempoleved erawtfos latnemadnuf stneserp esruoc sihT (less)