Keywords: Parents (44)

save
save to

Please log in to save materials.

selected filters:
Buck family pedigree, still image with audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)
Read the Fine Print

Buck family pedigree, still image with audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

DNAi location: Chronicle>Trial of Carrie Buck>trial Following the trial of Buck vs. ... (more)

DNAi location: Chronicle>Trial of Carrie Buck>trial Following the trial of Buck vs. Bell, a pedigree chart was created displaying the evidence that had been presented to the court. In the first line the first generation is shown 퉌_ Addy Emmitt or Emma Buck. In the second generation, Carrie Buck, the woman eventually sterilized, and in the third generation Vivian Alice Elaine Buck, born in 1924, tested at 7 months to show "backwardness." The dotted lines show the pedigree of people who are illegitimate, whose parents were not married. The Fs mark feeble-mindedness in all three generations in the Buck family. This pedigree shows the evidence presented to the court, and later to the world, to justify the result, in the case of Buck vs. Bell. (less)

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Interactive
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
Can DNA variations be detected? ? Alec JeffreysSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)
Read the Fine Print

Can DNA variations be detected? ? Alec JeffreysSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

Interviewee: Alec Jeffreys

Subject:
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Video Lectures
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
"Case I: 2 homozygous brown eyed parents will have 100% homozygous brown eyed children"
Read the Fine Print

"Case I: 2 homozygous brown eyed parents will have 100% homozygous brown eyed children"

Source Archive: The Harry H. Laughlin Papers, Truman State University Theme(s):   Mendelian Heredity

Subject:
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
"Case IV: two heterozygous brown eyed parents will have 25% homozgyous brown eyed, 50% heterozygous brown eyed and 25% homozygous blue eyed children"
Read the Fine Print

"Case IV: two heterozygous brown eyed parents will have 25% homozgyous brown eyed, 50% heterozygous brown eyed and 25% homozygous blue eyed children"

Source Archive: The Harry H. Laughlin Papers, Truman State University Theme(s):   Mendelian Heredity

Subject:
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
Chatterbox and Early Literacy in Trinidad and Tobago
No Strings Attached

Chatterbox and Early Literacy in Trinidad and Tobago

The main purpose of this module is to explore how teachers can ... (more)

The main purpose of this module is to explore how teachers can develop Early Literacy in young children by making use of their chat skills; also how they can advice parents about developing literacy practices at home and fostering oracy in their children as a basis for Literacy in a creole speaking (Trinidad and Tobago) context. (less)

Subject:
Humanities
Material Type:
Readings
Syllabi
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
Connexions
Author:
Barbara Joseph
"The Complex Determinants of Amentia," by L.S. Penrose, Eugenics Review (vol. 26:2)( page 5 )
Read the Fine Print

"The Complex Determinants of Amentia," by L.S. Penrose, Eugenics Review (vol. 26:2)( page 5 )

Source Archive: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives Theme(s):   Physical and Intellectual Measurement   Mental Illness

Subject:
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
Compréhension à l'audition: peur dans le noir
Remix and Share

Compréhension à l'audition: peur dans le noir

A la fin de la leçon, tu pourras donner un conseil aux ... (more)

A la fin de la leçon, tu pourras donner un conseil aux parents à propos de l'angoisse du noir. Tu pourras émettre des constatations concernant l'attitude des parents. Tu pourras retirer du fragment audio des trucs et des astuces à propos des cauchemards. (less)

Subject:
Humanities
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Provider:
KlasCement
Provider Set:
KlasCement
Author:
Vlaams Ministerie Van Onderwijs En Vorming
"Data collected by Miss Devitt, May and Nov. 1915," Eugenics Records Office fieldworker( page 5 )
Read the Fine Print

"Data collected by Miss Devitt, May and Nov. 1915," Eugenics Records Office fieldworker( page 5 )

Source Archive: American Philosophical Society Theme(s):   Field Notes and Student Work

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
"Data collected by Miss Devitt, May and Nov. 1915," Eugenics Records Office fieldworker( page 7 )
Read the Fine Print

"Data collected by Miss Devitt, May and Nov. 1915," Eugenics Records Office fieldworker( page 7 )

Source Archive: American Philosophical Society Theme(s):   Field Notes and Student Work

Subject:
Engineering
Technology
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
An Ethics Primer: Model Letter to Parents
Read the Fine Print

An Ethics Primer: Model Letter to Parents

This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with model letter to ... (more)

This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with model letter to be sent to parents at the beginning of a bioethics course. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Reference
Teaching and Learning Strategies
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Eugenics Record Office memo to high school teachers about conducting student pedigree studies in science classes
Read the Fine Print

Eugenics Record Office memo to high school teachers about conducting student pedigree studies in science classes

Source Archive: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives Theme(s):   Family Trait Forms   Pedigrees

Subject:
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
Eugenics and sex harmony: The sexes, their relations and problems, by H.H. Rubin( page 2 )
Read the Fine Print

Eugenics and sex harmony: The sexes, their relations and problems, by H.H. Rubin( page 2 )

Source Archive: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives Theme(s):   Eugenics Goals and Education

Subject:
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
Eugenics and sex harmony: The sexes, their relations and problems, by H.H. Rubin( page 4 )
Read the Fine Print

Eugenics and sex harmony: The sexes, their relations and problems, by H.H. Rubin( page 4 )

Source Archive: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives Theme(s):   Eugenics Goals and Education

Subject:
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
Game: Dog Breeding
Read the Fine Print

Game: Dog Breeding

Long hair, short hair, brown fur or black, you choose which dogs ... (more)

Long hair, short hair, brown fur or black, you choose which dogs to breed to make the perfect puppy! (less)

Subject:
Engineering
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Data
Games
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Lesson Plans
Simulations
Student Guide
Provider:
Science and Math Informal Learning Educators (SMILE)
Twin Cities Public Television
Provider Set:
SMILE Pathway: Science and Math Activities in One Search
DragonflyTV
Author:
DragonflyTV
National Science Foundation
Twin Cities Public Television
Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.
Generations of Traits
Read the Fine Print

Generations of Traits

In this hands-on activity, learners track and record the passage of colored ... (more)

In this hands-on activity, learners track and record the passage of colored "pompom traits" through three generations of gingerbread people. In doing so, learners discover that traits are passed from parents to offspring and that siblings may or may not receive the same traits from their parents. This guide includes activity sheets in English and Spanish. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Science and Technology
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Instructional Material
Lesson Plans
Simulations
Provider:
Genetic Science Learning Center
NSDL Staff
Science and Math Informal Learning Educators (SMILE)
Provider Set:
Teach.Genetics
Key Concepts in Biology
SMILE Pathway: Science and Math Activities in One Search
Author:
April Mitchell
Harmony Starr
Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Genetic Services Branch and the March of Dimes
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Precollege Science Education Initiative for Biomedical Research Institutions Award
Molly Malone
University of Utah
Having manic depression and whether or not to have children, Kay JamisonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)
Read the Fine Print

Having manic depression and whether or not to have children, Kay JamisonSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

Interviewee: Kay Jamison DNAi Location:Chronicle>Living with eugenics>The diagnosis An assault on her ... (more)

Interviewee: Kay Jamison DNAi Location:Chronicle>Living with eugenics>The diagnosis An assault on her genes The doctor's admonishment not to have children was like saying someone with your problems ought not to have been born. The Diagnosis Kay Jamison describes the shock of hearing her own diagnosis of manic depression and her doctor's advice not to have children. (less)

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Video Lectures
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
Hereditary Genius: An Enquiry into Its Laws and Consequences (2nd ed.), by Francis Galton, selected pages( page 10 )
Read the Fine Print

Hereditary Genius: An Enquiry into Its Laws and Consequences (2nd ed.), by Francis Galton, selected pages( page 10 )

Source Archive: University College, London Theme(s):   Talent   Francis Galton   Leading Eugenicists

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
"Heredity of albinism, by C.B. Davenport"( page 2 )
Read the Fine Print

"Heredity of albinism, by C.B. Davenport"( page 2 )

Source Archive: American Philosophical Society Theme(s):   Hereditary Disorders

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
"Heredity of albinism, by C.B. Davenport"( page 3 )
Read the Fine Print

"Heredity of albinism, by C.B. Davenport"( page 3 )

Source Archive: American Philosophical Society Theme(s):   Hereditary Disorders

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Life Science
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
"Human Sterilization," Human Betterment Foundation( page 3 )
Read the Fine Print

"Human Sterilization," Human Betterment Foundation( page 3 )

Source Archive: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives Theme(s):   Eugenics Goals and Education   Sterilization Laws

Subject:
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Dolan DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
2002 llaF ,gnivloS melborP gnireenignE dna sretupmoC ot noitcudortnI

2002 llaF ,gnivloS melborP gnireenignE dna sretupmoC ot noitcudortnI

.desu si egaugnal gnimmargorp avaJ ehT .gninnalp dna ,tnemeganam ,ecneics ,gnireenigne ni ... (more)

.desu si egaugnal gnimmargorp avaJ ehT .gninnalp dna ,tnemeganam ,ecneics ,gnireenigne ni smelborp gnivlos rof seuqinhcet gnipoleved no si sisahpmE .scipot decnavda detceles dna scihparg retupmoc ,gnihcraes dna gnitros ,serutcurts atad ,sdohtem laciremun ,secafretni resu lacihparg ,stpecnoc gnimmargorp revoc smelborp gnimmargorp ylkeeW .esruoc eht fo sucof eht si tnempoleved dna ngised erawtfos detneiro-tcejbO .snoitacilppa cifitneics dna gnireenigne rof sdohtem lanoitatupmoc dna tnempoleved erawtfos latnemadnuf stneserp esruoc sihT (less)