Keywords: Interferon (8)

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Analysis of Biological Networks (BE.440), Fall 2004
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Analysis of Biological Networks (BE.440), Fall 2004

This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and ... (more)

This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemical and quantitative views of the interplay of multiple pathways as biological networks are emphasized. Student work will culminate in the preparation of a unique grant application in an area of biological networks. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Case Study
Full Course
Homework and Assignments
Lecture Notes
Syllabi
Other
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Essigmann, John
Sasisekharan, Ram
Analysis of Biological Networks, Fall 2004
Remix and Share

Analysis of Biological Networks, Fall 2004

This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and ... (more)

This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemical and quantitative views of the interplay of multiple pathways as biological networks are emphasized. Student work will culminate in the preparation of a unique grant application in an area of biological networks. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Case Study
Full Course
Homework and Assignments
Lecture Notes
Syllabi
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Essigmann, John
Sasisekharan, Ram
Chromosome 11: TRIM genes and olfactory receptors, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)
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Chromosome 11: TRIM genes and olfactory receptors, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

DNAi location: Genome>Tour>flyover>TRIM and olfactory receptor clusters Next follows a cluster of ... (more)

DNAi location: Genome>Tour>flyover>TRIM and olfactory receptor clusters Next follows a cluster of four genes in the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. TRIM proteins contain three motifs, or structures, through which they bind to DNA to regulate gene activity. Averaging about 21,000 nucleotides and having about eight coding exons, the TRIM genes come very close to the average size of human genes. Different proteins can be produced by a single TRIM gene, by making different combinations of coding exons. TRIM 34 and 22 help mediate the antiviral activity of interferon and offer insight into the fight against HIV. Our tour ends with another cluster of nine olfactory receptor genes (LOC). Chromosome 11 contains about 40% the estimated 1,000 genes for olfactory receptors in the human genome. There is such a concentration of receptor genes at the tip of Chromosome 11 that this whole region could be called an olfactory supercluster, in which the beta globin, ubiquilin, and TRIM clusters are embedded. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Chemistry
Life Science
Material Type:
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
David Micklos (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;DNA Learning Center X-AUDIENCE)
Elof Carlson (SUNY at Stony Brook;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Garland Allen (Washington University at St. Louis;Biology Department X-AUDIENCE)
Jan Witkowski (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;Banbury Center X-AUDIENCE)
Paul Lombardo (University of Virginia;Center for Biomedical Ethics X-AUDIENCE)
Steven Selden (University of Maryland;Education Policy and Leadership Department X-AUDIENCE)
Cytokine Receptors and Jak-STAT Signaling
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Cytokine Receptors and Jak-STAT Signaling

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering ... (more)

This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering interferons, their receptors, and Jak-STAT signaling and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the different families of cytokines and their receptors and then proceeds to describe how cytokine receptor interactions lead to the activation of different members of the STAT family of transcription factors. (less)

Subject:
Social Sciences
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Lecture Notes
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Christain Schindler (Columbia University;Department of Medicine and Department of Microbiology)
Iron Regulatory Proteins as NO Signal Transducers
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Iron Regulatory Proteins as NO Signal Transducers

The iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) are an example of different proteins regulating ... (more)

The iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) are an example of different proteins regulating the same metabolic process, iron uptake and metabolism. IRP1 is an iron-sulfur cluster-containing protein that can be converted from a cytosolic aconitase to an RNA binding posttranscriptional regulator in response to nitric oxide (NO). IRP2 lacks aconitase activity and its expression is decreased by NO signaling. In macrophages, NO is produced in response to such inflammatory ligands as interferon-γ, which is expressed in response to mitogenic and antigenic stimuli, and lipopolysaccharide, a marker of bacterial invasion. Until recently, research results predict that the cellular response to increased NO production should be a decrease in ferritin synthesis, due to IRP1 binding to ferritin mRNA, and an increase in transferrin receptor biosynthesis, due to IRP1 binding to the transferrin mRNA. Surprisingly, however, macrophages exhibit decreased transferrin receptor concentration in response to inflammatory ligands. Bouton and Drapier discuss the physiological role and the mechanisms that may underlie this contradictory response. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Cecile Bouton (Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles;CNRS REV)
Jean-Claude Drapier (Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles;CNRS REV)
Protein Interfaces in Signaling Regulated by Arginine Methylation
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Protein Interfaces in Signaling Regulated by Arginine Methylation

Posttranslational covalent modifications of proteins provide a major mechanism for cellular signal ... (more)

Posttranslational covalent modifications of proteins provide a major mechanism for cellular signal transduction. Arginine methylation is a covalent modification that results in the addition of methyl groups on the arginine side chains catalyzed by members of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family. Identification of several arginine-methylated proteins indicates that arginine methylation influences several signaling pathways. Involvement of PRMT1, the major arginine methyltransferase, in T cell signaling, in response to lipopolysaccharides, in the stabilization of tumor necrosis factor–α mRNA, and in cytokine responses implicates this posttranslational modification in regulation of cell proliferation and antiviral responses. Arginine methylation can regulate protein-protein interactions. SH3 domains that normally associate with polyproline-rich ligands fail to do so when the neighboring arginine is dimethylated. Many other examples have now been documented, including protein interactions that are positively regulated by arginine methylation. This review focuses on how arginine methylation is implicated in protein-protein interactions that influence cell signaling. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Data
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Carol Anne Chenard (McGill University;Departments of Oncology and Medicine REV)
Francois-Michel Boisvert (McGill University;Departments of Oncology and Medicine REV)
Stephane Richard (McGill University;Departments of Oncology and Medicine REV)
Signal Integration via PKR
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Signal Integration via PKR

Interferons (IFNs) are secreted proteins that signal the presence of a virus ... (more)

Interferons (IFNs) are secreted proteins that signal the presence of a virus infection to surrounding cells. Cells respond to IFNs by establishing an antiviral state that prohibits virus replication, thereby limiting infection. One of the mediators of this antiviral state is an enzyme, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). Recently, in addition to its role as an antiviral protein, PKR has been shown to be essential in the development of normal cellular inflammatory responses to the products of both bacterial and viral infections. In this role, PKR functions as a transducer of signals from the extracellular milieu to the nucleus, a process which enables activation of expression of genes encoding molecules important for inflammation and immune responses. PKR performs this role by directly interacting with other intracellular components of signaling pathways and regulating their activity. When the activity of PKR is disrupted, cells become defective in their programmed death responses to different signals. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Bryan R. G. Williams (Cleveland Clinic Foundation;Lerner Research Institute REV)
Type I Interferons as Anti-Inflammatory Mediators
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Type I Interferons as Anti-Inflammatory Mediators

The type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, are cytokines that have ... (more)

The type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, are cytokines that have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities. Data are now emerging that suggest that type I IFNs are also important mediators of anti-inflammatory responses. These findings, largely driven by studies to explain the beneficial effects of IFN-β in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, offer a number of mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory properties of type I IFNs. Type I IFNs, through their ability to induce the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), mediate the inhibition of proinflammatory gene products. In addition, type I IFNs induce other immunosuppressive mediators such as suppressor of cytokine signaling–1 (SOCS-1) and tristetrapolin (TTP), which act by divergent mechanisms to restore homeostasis to the immune system. Furthermore, type I IFNs mediate anti-inflammatory and protective effects in a variety of autoimmune disease models such as experimental colitis, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, experimental arthritis, and neonatal inflammation. Here, we discuss the molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of type I IFNs and their therapeutic potential in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Etty N. Benveniste (University of Alabama at Birmingham;Department of Cell Biology REV)
Hongwei Qin (University of Alabama at Birmingham;Department of Cell Biology REV)
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2002 llaF ,gnivloS melborP gnireenignE dna sretupmoC ot noitcudortnI

.desu si egaugnal gnimmargorp avaJ ehT .gninnalp dna ,tnemeganam ,ecneics ,gnireenigne ni ... (more)

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