Keywords: Copernicus (9)

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Copernican System Model
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Copernican System Model

The Ejs Copernican System model illustrates Copernicus' system of planetary motions. The ... (more)

The Ejs Copernican System model illustrates Copernicus' system of planetary motions. The entire system is centered on the center of Earth's uniform, circular orbit. Sun is placed near, but not at, this center point. The orbit of each planet (other than Earth) consists of a deferent circle, centered on a point some distance from the center (at the eccentric point). Attached to this deferent is the center of a much smaller circle, the epicycle (or epicyclet). The radius of the epicycle is 1/3 the eccentricity of the deferent. The planet moves along the epicycle at a constant angular speed equal to twice the angular speed along the deferent. This model produces retrograde motion and changes in brightness that are always properly correlated with the location of Sun. In this simulation, the planet is assumed to move in the plane of the ecliptic, so its latitude is always zero. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Copernican System model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_astronomy_CopernicanSystem.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for astronomy are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs. (less)

Subject:
Computing and Information
Physics
Space Science
Education
Material Type:
Full Course
Instructional Material
Interactive
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Todd Timberlake
Introduction to Astronomy, Spring 2003
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Introduction to Astronomy, Spring 2003

Quantitative introduction to physics of the solar system, stars, interstellar medium, the ... (more)

Quantitative introduction to physics of the solar system, stars, interstellar medium, the Galaxy, and Universe, as determined from a variety of astronomical observations and models. Topics: planets, planet formation; stars, the Sun, "normal" stars, star formation; stellar evolution, supernovae, compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes), plusars, binary X-ray sources; star clusters, globular and open clusters; interstellar medium, gas, dust, magnetic fields, cosmic rays; distance ladder; galaxies, normal and active galaxies, jets; gravitational lensing; large scaling structure; Newtonian cosmology, dynamical expansion and thermal history of the Universe; cosmic microwave background radiation; big-bang nucleosynthesis. No prior knowledge of astronomy necessary. Not usable as a restricted elective by physics majors. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Assessments
Full Course
Homework and Assignments
Lecture Notes
Syllabi
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Rappaport, S. A.
Modeling the History of Astronomy: Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho
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Modeling the History of Astronomy: Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho

<a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.2119">This paper</a>, submitted to <i>Astronomy Education Review</i>, describes a series of ... (more)

<a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.2119">This paper</a>, submitted to <i>Astronomy Education Review</i>, describes a series of activities in which students investigate and use the models of planetary motion introduced by the Hellenistic astronomer Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd Century, by the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus in the mid-16th Century, and by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe in the late16th Century. The activities involve the use of open source software to help students discover important observational facts, learn the necessary vocabulary, understand the fundamental properties of different theoretical models, and relate the theoretical models to observational data. Once they understand the observations and models, students complete a series of projects in which they observe a fictitious solar system with four planets orbiting in circles around a central star and construct both Ptolemaic and Copernican models for that system. The computer simulations, activity handouts, and project assignments discussed in the paper are all available in a ComPADRE shared file folder: <a href="http://www.compadre.org/OSP/filingcabinet/share.cfm?UID=12250&FID=33000&code=A816D1F75A">http://www.compadre.org/OSP/filingcabinet/share.cfm?UID=12250&FID=33000&code=A816D1F75A</a>. (less)

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Computing and Information
Physics
Space Science
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Instructional Material
Interactive
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Todd Timberlake
Ptolemy Copernicus Tycho
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Ptolemy Copernicus Tycho

The Ptolemy/Copernicus/Tycho Model illustrates the relationships between the systems of planetary astronomy ... (more)

The Ptolemy/Copernicus/Tycho Model illustrates the relationships between the systems of planetary astronomy developed by Claudius Ptolemy, Nicholas Copernicus, and Tycho Brahe. The model presents a simplified version of all three systems, showing the motions of the Sun/Earth and two planets (one inferior, one superior). The model is initially set to model the planets Venus and Mars. In addition, the apparent motion of the sun and two planets across the sky is displayed in another window. This model can be used to illustrate the essential geometric equivalence between these three system. In particular, it shows that the Earth's orbit (in the Copernican system) becomes the orbit of the sun in the Ptolemaic and Tychonic systems, and also appears as the deferent of Venus and epicycle of Mars in the Ptolemaic system. The orbit of Venus about the sun (in the Copernican and Tychonic systems) becomes the epicycle of Venus in the Ptolemaic system. The orbit of Mars about the sun (in the Copernican and Tychonic systems) becomes the deferent of Mars in the Ptolemaic system. (less)

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Computing and Information
Physics
Space Science
Education
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Todd Timberlake
Simple Fictitious Solar Systems
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Simple Fictitious Solar Systems

The Simple Artificial Solar Systems package is a zip archive containing a ... (more)

The Simple Artificial Solar Systems package is a zip archive containing a set of thirty different Java programs (created using Easy Java Simulations) that simulate the night sky for fictitious solar systems. Each simulation illustrates the motion of a "Sun" and some "planets" relative to a fixed background of stars. Students can use these simulations to make qualitative and quantitative observations of the solar and planetary motions. These observations can then be used to construct models (Ptolemaic, Copernican, Tychonic, etc) for that solar system. Handouts for these projects are provided as supplementary documents. All of the solar systems were constructed such that all planets orbit in a common plane around the central "Sun". All orbits are circular, and thus the planets move uniformly on their orbits. This makes the geometry of the models much simpler. Included in the zip archive is a spreadsheet giving the required data for each system. Instructors who want their students to complete the projects individually should assign the 30 solar systems at random and privately document which solar system (by number) each student receives. Change the name of the solar system file from "ejs_YourSolarSystem01.jar" to "StudentNameSolarSystem.jar" (using the actual names of your students, of course) and then distribute the files to your students. That way your students will not know which system they have, so even if they get a copy of the solar system data file they will not be able to determine the data for their solar system without doing the necessary work (unless they want to rely on a 1 in 30 chance of guessing correctly). (less)

Subject:
History, Law, Politics
Computing and Information
Physics
Space Science
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Todd Timberlake
Toward the Scientific Revolution, Fall 2003
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Toward the Scientific Revolution, Fall 2003

The emergence of Western science: the systematization of natural knowledge in the ... (more)

The emergence of Western science: the systematization of natural knowledge in the ancient world, the transmission of the classical legacy to the Latin West, and the revolt from classical thought during the scientific revolution. Examines scientific concepts in light of their cultural and historical contexts. (less)

Subject:
Social Sciences
Material Type:
Assessments
Full Course
Homework and Assignments
Syllabi
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Kaiser, David
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