Keywords: Antigens (7)

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B cell differentiation

B cell differentiation

Mature B cells that undergo stimulation by an antigen undergo class switching, ... (more)

Mature B cells that undergo stimulation by an antigen undergo class switching, and differentiate into either plasma or memory cells. In the paracortex region of the lymph node binding to MHC II in the presence of IL-4 produced by the CD4+ T cells (TH2 type) causes the B cells to differentiate; most will become plasma cells, however a small number will become memory cells. Follicular dendritic cells present in the germinal centers of peripheral lymphoid organs can absorb intact antigen onto their surface to present to B cells to stimulate differentiation. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Images and Illustrations
Readings
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Blood
Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense
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Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense

View the animation to see how one type of immune cell-the helper ... (more)

View the animation to see how one type of immune cell-the helper T cell-interprets a message presented at the surface of the cell membrane. The message is an antigen, a protein fragment taken from an invading microbe. A series of events unfolds that results in the production of many clones of the helper T cell. These identical T cells can serve as a brigade forming an essential communication network to activate B cells, which make antibodies that will specifically attack the activating antigen. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Video Lectures
Provider:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Provider Set:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Major Histocompatability Complexes

Major Histocompatability Complexes

T-cells rely on Major Histocompatability Complexes (MHC), which are molecules manufactured within ... (more)

T-cells rely on Major Histocompatability Complexes (MHC), which are molecules manufactured within cells for the purpose of presenting antigen fragments so that they can be detected by the immune system. MHC has evolved to form two classes for antigen presentation: MHC I presents digested fragments from antigen in cellular cytoplasm, and MHC II presents digested fragments from antigen in the tissue fluid (extracellular). MHC I tends to bind slightly smaller peptides (~9 amino acids) than MHC II (~15 amino acids). (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Images and Illustrations
Readings
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Blood
Natural Killer cells

Natural Killer cells

NK cells can be classified as lymphocytes because they are capable of ... (more)

NK cells can be classified as lymphocytes because they are capable of recognising antigen, however they are more often associated with the innate immune response. They target cells by monitoring MHC production, which is expressed by healthy cells to present antigen to T-cells. Low MHC levels can be used as a marker for a cell whose machinery is compromised by a replicating virus. When MHC levels drop, it acts as a danger signal to the NK cells, which then release enzymes to kill the infected cells. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Images and Illustrations
Readings
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Blood
PROTEIN STRUCTURE: Class-Conscious TCR?
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PROTEIN STRUCTURE: Class-Conscious TCR?

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. ... (more)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Resolution of the structure of the T cell receptor (TCR) bound to a complex between an MHC class I molecule and a peptide of processed antigen sheds new light on the molecular complexities of this interaction. Now, in a Perspective, Ian Wilson discusses new work (Reinherz et al.) that reveals the structure of TCR bound to an MHC class II-peptide complex and compares and contrasts the two classes of structure. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Ian A. Wilson (The Scripps Research Institute;Department of Molecular Biology and Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology)
VIROLOGY: Enhanced: The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza
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VIROLOGY: Enhanced: The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required:What ... (more)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required:What would happen if a flu pandemic as devastating as the 1918 Spanish flu arrived tomorrow. As Laver explains in a Perspective, preparation of the appropriate subunit vaccine (which depends on accurate identification of the flu virus strain) would take too long. He suggests that stockpiling antiviral drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, which block the action of the flu neuraminidase enzyme preventing spread of the virus throughout the host's body, would be a good place to start. (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Education
Material Type:
Images and Illustrations
Reference
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Elspeth Garman (University of Oxford;Department of Biochemistry)
Graeme Laver (Australian National University;)
iBioSeminar: Cell Biology of the Immune Response
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iBioSeminar: Cell Biology of the Immune Response

The immune system is charged with protecting us from invading microorganisms, a ... (more)

The immune system is charged with protecting us from invading microorganisms, a task that falls to a complex array of highly specialized cell types spread throughout the body but that must work together as an integrated system. How they accomplish and perform their functions can be wonderfully understood by probing the basic mechanisms governing their activities. In the first video, we will consider the overall organization of the immune response in cellular terms, the innate immune system (comprising evolutionarily ancient phagocytic cells that recognize conserved molecules of microorganisms) and the adaptive immune system (composed of lymphocytes that recognize chemically diverse antigens). (less)

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Instructional Material
Lecture Notes
Provider:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Provider Set:
BiosciEdNet (BEN): Digital Library Portal for Teaching and Learning in the Biological Sciences
Author:
Ira Mellman (Genentech, Inc.;)
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