# Your Quick Guide to Chicago/Turabian Citation Style

The Chicago Citation Style has two documentation systems: notes and bibliography and author-date formats. Both of them are correct. Your choice depends on your subject and recommendations of your professor (if any).

### Notes and Bibliography

The Chicago notes and bibliography system is most commonly used in Humanities, particularly in History. It uses endnotes or footnotes to avoid plagiarism concerns.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page.

Endnotes are included at the end of the chapter or at the end of the entire document.

An in-text citation is marked with a superscript numeral (1) at the end of a sentence containing a direct or paraphrased quote or summary.

If you cite a certain source for the first time, be sure to include complete information on it – author or editor, title, year of publication. All the following notes will require only brief information. Include a note every time you use a quote.

If you cite the same source several times consecutively, starting from the second quote, use ‘Ibid.’ instead of complete information (Ibid comes from Latin and means ‘in the same place’.)

Examples of Notes and Bibliography Entries

A book

Endnote or footnote:

Mentioning first time:

Joanne Carlson, The Parent Effect: How Parenting Style Affects Adolescent Behavior and Personality Development (New York: NASW Press, 2011), 34- 43.

Further mentions:

Carlson, The Parent Effect, 45.

Bibliography:

Carlson, Joanne, The Parent Effect: How Parenting Style Affects Adolescent Behavior and Personality Development. New York: NASW Press, 2011.

A journal article

Endnote or footnote:

First mentioning:

Abby Braden et al. “Associations between Child Emotional Eating and General Parenting Style, Feeding Practices and Parent Psychopathology”, Appetite 80 (2014): 25.

Further mentions:

Braden et al “Associations between Child Emotional Eating and Parenting Style”, 27.

Bibliography:

Braden, Abby et al. “Associations between Child Emotional Eating and General Parenting Style, Feeding Practices and Parent Psychopathology”. Appetite 80 (2014): 25 - 40.

A website

Endnote or footnote:

First mentioning:

“Types of Parenting Styles and how to Identify Yours.” Vanderbilt University Website, accessed  November 4, 2015. https://my.vanderbilt.edu/developmentalpsychologyblog/2013/12/types-of-parenting-styles-and-how-to-identify-yours/

Further mentions:

“Types of Parenting Styles.”

Bibliography:

Vanderbilt University Website. “Types of Parenting Styles and how to Identify Yours.” Accessed  November 4, 2015. https://my.vanderbilt.edu/developmentalpsychologyblog/2013/12/types-of-parenting-styles-and-how-to-identify-yours/

### Author and Date

The author date system of referencing requires only basic information in brackets after a quote in text and more detailed info on a bibliography page.

A book

Bibliography entry:

Carlson, Joanne. 2011. The Parent Effect: How Parenting Style Affects Adolescent Behavior and Personality Development. New York: NASW Press.

In text:

(Carlson 2011, 43)

A journal article

Bibliography entry:

Braden, Abby et al. 2014. “Associations between Child Emotional Eating and General Parenting Style, Feeding Practices and Parent Psychopathology”. Appetite 80: 25 - 40.

In text:

A website

Bibliography entry:

Vanderbilt University Website. 2013. “Types of Parenting Styles and how to Identify Yours.” Accessed  November 4, 2015. https://my.vanderbilt.edu/developmentalpsychologyblog/2013/12/types-of-parenting-styles-and-how-to-identify-yours/

In text:

(Vanderbild University 2013)

As you can see, using Chicago Citation Style formatting for paper writing can be easy. All you need is this quick guide and easy examples that make it crystal clear.