Keywords: Life Sciences (1105)

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AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic, Lecture 1: From Outbreak to Epidemic

AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic, Lecture 1: From Outbreak to Epidemic

This resource would be great preparation material for a classroom discussion or ... (more)

This resource would be great preparation material for a classroom discussion or video presentation for both the students and the teacher. This visual helps further broaden the knowledge of students in both the college undergraduate and graduate educational level on HIV/AIDS. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Social Sciences
Material Type:
Video Lectures
Collection:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Provider:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Author:
Bisola O. Ojikutu, M.D., M.P.H.
Read the Fine Print
AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic , Lecture 2 : AIDS and the HIV Life Cycle

AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic , Lecture 2 : AIDS and the HIV Life Cycle

This resource would be great preparation material for a classroom discussion or ... (more)

This resource would be great preparation material for a classroom discussion or video presentation for both the students and the teacher. This visual helps further broaden the knowledge of students in both the college undergraduate and graduate educational level on HIV/AIDS. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Social Sciences
Material Type:
Video Lectures
Collection:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Provider:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Author:
Bruce D. Walker, M.D.
Read the Fine Print
AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic, Lecture 3: Drugs and HIV Evolution

AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic, Lecture 3: Drugs and HIV Evolution

This video from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is from the 2007 ... (more)

This video from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is from the 2007 Holiday Lectures on Science: "AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic." Bisola O. Ojikutu, M.D., M.P.H. discusses antiretroviral therapy in AIDS and HIV. The video is available as an indexed video with synchronized slides or webcast video only. Both require RealPlayer. The video is 58 minutes and 31 seconds long and there are 91 slides. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Social Sciences
Material Type:
Video Lectures
Collection:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Provider:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Author:
Bisola O. Ojikutu, M.D., M.P.H.
Read the Fine Print
AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic, Lecture 4: Vaccines and HIV Evolution

AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic, Lecture 4: Vaccines and HIV Evolution

Presented by Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Bruce D. Walker this indexed ... (more)

Presented by Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Bruce D. Walker this indexed video with synchronized slides is part of the 2007 Holiday Lectures on Science: "AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic." This presentation covers the role of vaccines in fighting HIV and AIDS. It is 58 minutes and 29 seconds long and requires RealPlayer 10. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Social Sciences
Material Type:
Video Lectures
Collection:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Provider:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Author:
Bruce D. Walker, M.D.
Read the Fine Print
Aberrant mucin assembly in mice causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and spontaneous inflammation resembling ulcerative colitis

Aberrant mucin assembly in mice causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and spontaneous inflammation resembling ulcerative colitis

Background MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells is the major component ... (more)

Background MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells is the major component of the intestinal mucus barrier. The inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis is characterized by depleted goblet cells and a reduced mucus layer, but the aetiology remains obscure. In this study we used random mutagenesis to produce two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease, characterized the basis and nature of the inflammation in these mice, and compared the pathology with human ulcerative colitis. Methods and FindingsBy murine N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis we identified two distinct noncomplementing missense mutations in Muc2 causing an ulcerative colitis-like phenotype. 100% of mice of both strains developed mild spontaneous distal intestinal inflammation by 6 wk (histological colitis scores versus wild-type mice, p , 0.01) and chronic diarrhea Monitoring over 300 mice of each strain demonstrated that 25% and 40% of each strain, respectively, developed severe clinical signs of colitis by age 1 y. Mutant mice showed aberrant Muc2 biosynthesis, less stored mucin in goblet cells, a diminished mucus barrier, and increased susceptibility to colitis induced by a luminal toxin. Enhanced local production of IL-1b, TNF-a, and IFN-c was seen in the distal colon, and intestinal permeability increased 2-fold. The number of leukocytes within mesenteric lymph nodes increased 5-fold and leukocytes cultured in vitro produced more Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IFN-c, TNF-a, and IL-13). This pathology was accompanied by accumulation of the Muc2 precursor and ultrastructural and biochemical evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in goblet cells, activation of the unfolded protein response, and altered intestinal expression of genes involved in ER stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and wound repair. Expression of mutated Muc2 oligomerisation domains in vitro demonstrated that aberrant Muc2 oligomerisation underlies the ER stress. In human ulcerative colitis we demonstrate similar accumulation of nonglycosylated MUC2 precursor in goblet cells together with ultrastructural and biochemical evidence of ER stress even in noninflamed intestinal tissue. Although our study demonstrates that mucin misfolding and ER stress initiate colitis in mice, it does not ascertain the genetic or environmental drivers of ER stress in human colitis.Conclusions Characterization of the mouse models we created and comparison with human disease suggest that ER stress-related mucin depletion could be a fundamental component of the pathogenesis of human colitis and that clinical studies combining genetics, ER stress-related pathology and relevant environmental epidemiology are warranted. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Images and Illustrations
Video Lectures
Collection:
SciVee
Provider:
SciVee
Author:
mmcguckin
No Strings Attached
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.desu si egaugnal gnimmargorp avaJ ehT .gninnalp dna ,tnemeganam ,ecneics ,gnireenigne ni ... (more)

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Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Assessments
Full Course
Homework and Assignments
Lecture Notes
Syllabi
Collection:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Provider:
M.I.T.
Author:
George Kocur
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